The present study explored developmental factors that would contribute to individual differences in behaviors relevant to shame and guilt of young children. The children's behaviors relevant to shame and guilt were observed by an experimental procedure. The children were led to happen to destroy an experimenter's doll, and their behavioral variables relevant to shame and guilt were measured. Their mothers answered the questionnaire tapping developmental factors: children's temperament, the frequency of maternal disciplines, and the frequency of maternal emotional experiences. A factor analysis of children's behavioral variables revealed that there were apologizing traits and repairing traits. Moreover, children who received more physical punishment were likely to apologize to the experimenter for destroying the doll. Children whose mothers experienced more shame were less likely to repair the broken doll rapidly. Boys who were temperamentally more insistent and expressing more positive emotions were likely to apologize to the experimenter for destroying the doll.
This study examined semantic satiation in a flanked-category verification task. In the experiment, a target pair (FRUIT grape) was flanked by a distractor (i.e., flanker). There were three conditions; compatible condition in which flankers were semantically related to a target category word (FRUIT grape vs. apple), incompatible condition in which flankers were not related (FRUIT grape vs. coffee), baseline condition in which flankers were not presented. Seventy-three college students participated in the experiment and judged whether or not a instance word was related to a category word in the target pair. As a result, the semantic satiation effect was found regardless of flanker conditions. Additionally, the influence of flanker was not attenuated by prime repetitions. These results were elucidated in terms of decision criterion based on a semantic relatedness of prime and target instance words. A possibility indicated that the locus of decision criteria was shifted to a more careful one by prolonged prime repetitions. Finally, one explanation was discussed that an influence of satiation would be emerged from the process which suited semantic information to the context.
Participants detected a target from search stimuli which contained either eight (Experiment 1) or four (Experiment 2) living or nonliving common objects. Objects were represented either as pictures or as words. The target and other stimuli were from a same category, either living or nonliving, in the congruent condition, and were from a different category in the incongruent condition. The results of Experiment 1 showed that picture targets were detected more quickly in the incongruent than in the congruent condition while word targets were detected more quickly in the congruent than in the incongruent condition. These results indicate an interference effect of visual context in picture detection and a facilitation effect of semantic context in word detection. However, Experiment 2 using four stimuli did not show the same contextual effects as Experiment 1, probably because the task became easy.
It is known that the multiple injections of ibotenic acid to the hippocampal CA1 (Cornu Ammonis 1) field of a rat cause cell loss and spatial learning impairment in the place task of Morris water maze. However, no study seems to have been conducted concerning the cue task of the maze. This study examined (1) whether cell loss in the CA1 field produced learning deficits in both the place and cue tasks; (2) whether training could remedy the deficit in spatial learning; and (3) whether the order of place training and cue training could change the performance outcome. Thirty-seven rats of Wistar strain were divided into Place-Cue (PC) group that received place training first and then cue training, and Cue-Place (CP) group that received training in the reverse order. Half rats in each group were damaged in the CA1 field by ibotenic acid injections. Results indicated that damage to CA1 pyramidal cells led to performance deficits only in the place task throughout training, regardless of the sequence of training. The results also indicated that training in the prior task affected learning in the succeeding task, only at the beginning of training, and the effect is transient.
This study aimed at examining how adult attachment styles as believes and expectations about self and others affected emotional recognition of facial expressions. In this study, hypotheses were framed based on the perspective of attachment dimensions. One hundred and sixty one undergraduates observed positive, negative, and neutral facial expressions as stimulus, and rated the extent to which each stimuli expressed several kinds of emotion. The main results were as follows. Generally, either anxious or avoidant individuals were less likely to perceive positive emotion (happy) from facial expressions, and anxious and less avoidant individuals perceived other-oriented negative emotions (anger, disgust, and contempt). In addition, avoidant individuals were less likely to perceive positive emotion from positive facial expressions. On the other hand, from negative facial expressions, anxious and less avoidant individuals were more likely to perceive other-oriented negative emotions, and anxious individuals were less likely to perceive positive emotion. The results were discussed from the perspective of adult attachment theory.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the psycholexical study by Tsuji (2001) in terms of the Big Five personality factors. First, the study by Tsuji is described after reviewing shortly the history of psycholexical studies in Japan, and the need for the re-evaluation of his result by confirmatory factor rotation is stressed. Second, after obtaining the Factor Parsimony solution for Tsuji's psycholexical data, the application of the orthogonal incomplete procrustes factor rotation method discussed by Browne (1972) and Kashiwagi (1989) is proposed. Finally, the result is examined in terms of the Big Five personality traits. Although some differences appeared compared to the past works in Japanese adjectives for personality traits, the Big Five personality factors hypothesis has been confirmed through the present work in the sense of the markers discussed by Goldberg (1992).
Previous studies have suggested that facial displays in the presence of others are influenced by the relationship with accompanying persons. In these studies, subjects participated with friends or strangers, without any focus on social interactions between partners. In the current study, pairs of friends or strangers viewed film clips expected to elicit positive and negative affects; the control group participated without partners. We measured synchronous smiles between partners as a social interactive display, in addition to the duration and the frequency of smiles and frowns. Subjective emotion and social motive were also measured. Smiles were facilitated by the presence of a friend than a stranger or the condition of lone participation, regardless of stimulus valence. Synchronous smiles and the communication motive were also enhanced with a friend than with a stranger. These results suggested that the expression of smiles was facilitated by the communication motive and social interactions between partners.
This study reports systematic relations between intonations and impressions of speakers' personality. Fundamental frequencies (F0) of stimuli were transformed to emphasize pitch modulations, and unfamiliar intonations for native speakers were generated by reversing pitches. In the first experiment, 66 university students were asked to rate personality images on speech stimuli with the Big Five categories. In the second experiment, 54 participants rated the same stimuli regarding mimetic words, which describe personality characteristics. Results showed that emphases of intonation contours independently affected personality impression traits. Relations between the degree of emphases in intonations and the personality traits were described by simple or reverse U-shaped curves, whose peak positions and slopes were varied by traits. By combining these characteristic curves, the study could restore the personality image as a whole via speech. Although participants evaluated speeches with unfamiliar intonation as obscure talks, the speakers were viewed easygoing and optimistic. The results indicate our tolerance toward the people, who speak non-native or unfamiliar dialect accent.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate perception of client relationship by human service professionals and its possible relationship with burnout. One hundred sixty-five (165) human service professionals, nurses and careworkers, completed a questionnaire. Results indicated that they typically rated their relationship with clients to be better than the average, and thus showing an enhancement tendency in their perception. In addition, regression analysis showed that the main effects of positive evaluation of themselves and clients were found on burnout, but not on psychological stress reaction. Furthermore, positive client evaluation had a buffering effect on depersonalization in cases of interpersonal conflict with clients. These results suggested that perception of close relationship with clients was one of the most important factors for preventing burnout of human service professionals.
During adolescence, it is known that some experiences similar to mental disorders are observed in normal people. This study empirically examined the psychological factors causing the distress of egorrhea symptoms, i. e., the feeling that the internal state is “seen through.” Possible psychological factors were identified based on previous studies. A questionnaire battery was administered to undergraduate students and a series of multiple regression analyses was conducted on the questionnaire data with the degrees of distress as the dependent variable and psychological factors as independent variables. The results indicated that the distress of egorrhea symptoms in the situation of “blushing and dismay” was led by the idea of offending, the motivation for avoiding rejection, and suspicion; and that the distress of egorrhea symptoms in the situation of “disagreeable individual” was led by the idea of offending, motivation for avoiding rejection, and secrecy. The results suggest that the ideas of offending and the motivation for avoiding rejection have a significant influence on egorrhea symptoms. Finally, the relationship between egorrhea symptoms and communication was discussed.