This study investigated inhibitory factors in anger expressive behaviors among Japanese junior high school students. It also examined the relations between anger experiences and personality traits: verbal expression and narcissism. The result indicated that the factors of “friend relationships” and “cost-reward consciousness” were selected as those which inhibited anger expressive behaviors. Results of a covariance structure analysis were as follows. First, narcissistic personality elicited feelings of anger and depression and cognitions of inflating and calming, which all facilitated aggressive behavior, social sharing, and object-displacement as anger expressive behaviors. Second, verbal expression elicited cognitions of objectifying and self-reproaching, and the former inhibited anger expressive behaviors, though the latter facilitated them. Finally, “cost-reward consciousness” inhibited anger expressive behaviors for boys, while “normative consciousness” inhibited them for girls.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the influences of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) on daily psychological states and salivary cortisol level. First, 42 women recorded their PMS symptoms and basal body temperatures every day for approximately two menstrual cycles. Based on these prospective records of PMS symptoms, participants were divided into two groups: Normal group (n=22) and PMS group (n=17). There were no significant differences between the two groups in age, height, weight, age at menarche, menstrual cycle length, menstrual period, depression score, and stressor score. Next, 14 women (7 Normal group, 7 PMS group) were selected and they were measured twice, once during the premenstrual phase and once during the postmenstrual phase of their cycles. Each day, they took saliva samples and recorded their psychological states six times (from waking to going to bed) per day at their homes. Results showed that the fear score in PMS group was high in the premenstrual phase, whereas salivary cortisol level in PMS group was low in the same phase compared to the Normal group. These results suggested the possibility of dysregulation of the stress system in women with PMS.
Although there have been a number of studies that theoretically and empirically examined altruism based on direct reciprocity, few have been conducted on how altruism based on indirect reciprocity emerges. Recent advances in biological research, however, have suggested possible answers to the question. For instance, Nowak and Sigmund (1998a, b) proposed that what they called image scoring strategy made indirect reciprocity possible. After critically examining their work, Leimar and Hammerstein (2001) pointed out several limitations to the theory, and instead proposed standing strategy as an explanation. Although careful attempts to replicate the findings by them and Panchanathan and Boyd (2003) supported the arguments against image scoring, we reveal that standing strategy was not a satisfactory answer either. Based on a series of evolutionary simulations, we propose a new strategy, which we call strict discriminator, as an alternative. Strict discriminators are discriminating altruists, similar to the altruists with image scoring or standing strategy, but they are different in that its criterion for discrimination is stricter: unconditional altruists are excluded from their reciprocity.
The aim of the present study is to explain why there is “the diverse U letter relationship” between embarrassment and psychological distance empirically, in view of Schlenker and Leary (1982)'s self-presentation model of social anxiety. In Study 1, those relationships were observed in three different situations. In Study 2, the main effect of motivation for avoiding rejection and the damage of self-image, and their interaction with embarrassment was examined by hierarchical regression analysis. In the first step, the psychological distance, in the second step, the main effect of both, and in the third step, the interaction was entered. As a result, in the second step, both main effects were significant, but in the third step, only interaction was significant, and both main effects were not significant. This showed that the interaction could predict embarrassment, although the psychological distance was controlled. Finally, this result was discussed in view of social norm.
This study examined the causal links among job involvement (JI), career commitment (CC), affective commitment to the organization (ACO), and continuance commitment to the organization (CCO) under Japanese management practices. It was hypothesized that, JI influences CC, ACO and CCO directly, and influences ACO and CCO indirectly through CC. Survey data of 1470 male college-graduate white-colors were analyzed and results of path analysis (AMOS 4.0) showed a good fit with the model. As predicted, a positive relationship between CC and CCO was found for employees who had worked continuously for a large organization after graduation, but not for those who had turnover experiences. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.
Purpose of this study was to develop the Japanese version of the Values In Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS). Japanese VIA-IS was back-translated, and their items were checked by the developers of the original VIA-IS. Participants in our standardization study were 778 undergraduate students who answered a battery of self-report questionnaires. The battery consisted of the Japanese versions of VIA-IS, Subjective Happiness Scale, General Health Questionnaire, and NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). It was found that VIA-IS has high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Happier people showed higher overall scores on VIA-IS and on almost all subscales both in men and women. Scores on VIA-IS were higher in the healthier group than in the unhealthy group, especially on the subscales of depression and impediment of social activities. Subscales of NEO-FFI were related to subscales of VIA-IS in a consistent way. High nomination groups showed significantly higher scores on eight subscales of VIA-IS than low nomination groups.
The effects of the type of prepulse (PP: visual 30ms and auditory 30ms) and lead time (50, 100, 200ms) on the acoustic startle inhibition (prepulse inhibition: PPI) were tested and compared among four strains of inbred mice (BALB/cA, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, and DBA/2N: all n=11). Following 40 trials of habituation using single pulse (white noise: P; 115dB, 50ms), the prepulse session made of 36 trials was conducted. In the habituation, the startle amplitude and peak latency were measured. DBA mice showed weaker startle amplitude than the other 3 strains. The peak latency of the BALB mice was faster than the other strains. The PPI by auditory PP was largest in C57BL, followed by C3H, and the least in BALB mice. DBA mice showed no PPI effect. The PPI under visual prepulse condition was observed only in BALB strain. Contrary, DBA mice showed prepulse facilitation in the 50ms lead time condition.
The purpose of the present study was to clarify the effect that social skill deficits had on depression in junior high school girls. Social skills and symptoms of depression were measured in a survey of 775 junior high school girls. About six weeks later, symptoms of depression were measured again, along with occurrence of stressors during the interval. It was found that social skill deficits were significantly associated with depression. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that after partialling out the influence of first depression scores, social skill scores contributed significantly to the prediction of post-interval depression scores. In addition, we found an interaction effect of social skill and stressor scores on post-interval depression, and girls with social skill deficits became more depressed when they experienced stressors.
Narrative approach suggests that finding or creating meaning in one's own negative experience is important, and one of psychotherapeutic goals may be making it possible for the person to tell his/her in experience to others in a more positive way than otherwise. On the other hand, recent studies of self-disclosure have suggested that disclosure of negative experience could be harmful to well-being or interpersonal relationship of the person. This study investigated the relationship between ways of finding meaning in negative experiences and hesitation in self-disclosure. A questionnaire about negative life experience was administered to 210 undergraduates. Results indicated that there were four different ways of finding meaning in negative experiences, and four factors of the hesitation could be classified into those having interpersonal and intra-personal negative implications. Believing that a negative experience had negative effects on life led to stronger hesitation in self-disclosure. Interpreting a negative experience positively led to less intra-personal hesitation. And holding no hope or optimistic perspective about a negative experience led to stronger interpersonal hesitation in self-disclosure.
Forty participants viewed and interpreted videotapes that were composed of displays representing different human actions (e.g., running and washing hands) and emotions (pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant). Half the videotapes were usual movies of real persons and the other videotapes were biological motions as produced by 22 light points on a human body in otherwise total darkness. In each display, an expert or a novice played a series of large or small body actions under each emotion. We found that (1) pleasant-unpleasant feeling was well discriminated in the real-person displays and in the biological motion display of large body actions, but it was less discriminated in the biological-motion displays of small body actions, (2) actions by experts were rated to be pleasant, and (3) actions were successfully identified for the real displays of large actions by experts, but they were poorly identified for the biological-motion displays of small body actions by novices. These results suggested that the observers correctly judged the emotion of players that was represented through suitable actions.