A multi-method approach was used to examine whether and how companion animals (CA) affect subjective well-being and social networks of Japanese people. In Study 1, a mail survey with a probability sample of 1250 Japanese adults over 40 years old showed that (1) female owners' attachment to CA negatively correlated with subjective well-being, and (2), although younger (under 65) CA owners had more close friends than non-owners, this tendency was reversed for those over 65. In Study 2, in-depth interviews with 27 adults showed that (1) female CA owners reported lower subjective well-being than non-owners, (2) although CA owners were generally successful in interacting with strangers through CA-related behaviors such as dog-walking, those relationships were unlikely to become close, and (3) in contrast to the owners' tendency to portray themselves in positive ways, most non-owners described CA owners negatively, such as being lonely or bad-mannered. Based on the present findings, which sharply contradict those of previous studies in the western societies, future issues are discussed.
Two studies were conducted to examine the effect of affects on self-control behavior in delayed cost dilemma. Results of Study 1 suggested that long term negative affects such as regret and self-disgust might have facilitating effects on motivation of self-control if they were anticipated before delayed-cost dilemma situations, but inhibiting effects on self-efficacy of control when experienced after dilemma situations. Study 2 examined the effect of affect priming on self-control in eating behavior, as well as an interaction effect of anticipated affect and regulatory resource on it. Results indicated that participants who had enough regulatory resource succeeded in self-control, i. e. they ate less, regardless of the type of affect priming, but those who did not have sufficient resource and were not primed with long-term negative affects failed to control their behavior. It was argued that, regulatory resource explanation of self-control should be expanded to the theory including anticipated affects.
The purpose of this research was to compare the forgetting property of object orientation information and identity information. They were measured by two types of recognition tests about both of information of natural objects presented in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP). Participants were one hundred and twenty undergraduates who were tested with two recognition tests. The results indicated; (1) Short-term memory for orientation information was inferior to that for identity information; (2) Estimated decay rate of orientation information was about twice as fast as that of identity information; (3) Orientation information was forgotten in about two seconds regardless of the category level of presented objects. Finally, the validity of recognition tests of object orientation and the independence of identity information and orientation information are discussed.
According to the group value model (Tyler & Lind, 1992), disputants who are able to confirm own group identity through proper treatment by group authority would perceive procedural justice and become more willing to accept group decisions. On the other hand, based on the social exchange model, people who are involved in disputes should expect support from group authority, and believe that they are entitled to governmental protection against injustice if they have supported the group. In this study, we predicted that sympathetic treatment by the judge in a civil action would have the effect of making disputants feel that their rights were protected, in addition to confirmation of own group identity. We asked 100 people who had experienced a civil trial, to rate the judge, procedure and final judgment, in order to examine the effects of sympathetic treatment by authority. Results of data analysis supported the group value model with respect to the overall satisfaction of the trial, and the social exchange model with respect to perceived justice of judges' final judgement.
This study examined the effectiveness of group reminiscence therapy in a Japanese elderly community. The relationship between the effectiveness of reminiscence therapy and styles of daily reminiscence was also examined. Participants (Two men and 46 women, mean age=81.9 years) were recruited from a welfare center of a community. The reminiscence group and the control group consisted of 22 and 26 participants, respectively. They completed the assessment of anxiety and insomnia, depression, integrity, life satisfaction, and self-esteem before and after the intervention and in the 12-week follow-up. Participants in the reminiscence group took eight one-hour weekly sessions. Results showed that the reminiscence group showed improvement in life satisfaction after the intervention. Results also revealed that the frequency of daily reminiscence positively correlated with self-esteem at the posttest, suggesting that older adults reminiscing frequently may improve self-esteem when they participate in reminiscence therapy. The results suggested the potential value of group reminiscence therapy for Japanese elders.
This study examined whether the choice of interactors is influenced by indoor and outdoor situations. Peer relations among twenty three-year-old, eighteen four-year-old, and twenty five-year-old children in an urban preschool in Japan were observed during indoor and outdoor free play situations. We analyzed the partners in the interactions, the number, and the stability of interactors. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H) was used to measure the stability of interactors. In outdoor situations, three-year-old and four-year-old children were involved with a diversity of interactors, while four-year-old children's preferred friends were stable. Five-year-old children showed a relation with stable interactors in both indoor and outdoor situations, choosing different interactors in each situation. In addition, the children who had few interactors in indoor situations increased their relations with interactors in outdoor situations. These results suggest that three-year-old and four-year-old children are affected by environmental factors that seem to stimulate the children's physiognomic perception, whereas five-year-old children make use of the environment. Opportunities for children to encounter various situations and meet various peers may facilitate the development of social relations.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between lifestyle and women's mental health, as mediated by role attainment, life satisfaction and personality. A questionnaire was completed by 751 adult women (age25-65) with children. Based on participation in work and social activities, subjects were divided into four lifestyle groups. In mental health scores, no significant differences were found among these four groups. Although life satisfaction and attainment of life performance (e.g., as wife, mother, worker, or social activist) did not show significant differences, profiles of personality differed by lifestyles. In addition, each role attainment, life satisfaction and each personality dimension influenced mental health differently according to lifestyles. Results indicated that the quality of wife-role performance, character dimensions in personality and life satisfaction were important component of promotion of better mental health.
The purpose of this study was to examine how the differences of task influenced the perceptions of self and their relationship in problem solving situation, and to study the relation between self and their relationship. The participants were 64 college students. Two same-sex students made a pair and were engaged to solve the task together. After pairs solved the task, they completed the questionnaire. Pairs were randomly divided into one of two experimental conditions. In the “ability task” condition, pairs solved the logical task, and pairs of the “interpersonal relations task” condition solved the task concerning interpersonal relations. The results indicated that the self and their relationship were perceived differently between the two conditions of tasks.
The purpose of this study was to examine the sources of confidence that organization leaders had. As potential sources of the confidence, we focused on fulfillment of expectations made by self and others, reflection on good as well as bad job experiences, and awareness of job experiences in terms of commonality, differentiation, and multiple viewpoints. A questionnaire was administered to 170 managers of Japanese companies. Results were as follows: First, confidence in leaders was more strongly related to fulfillment of expectations made by self and others than reflection on and awareness of job experiences. Second, the confidence was weakly related to internal processing of job experiences, in the form of commonality awareness and reflection on good job experiences. And finally, years of managerial experiences had almost no relation to the confidence. These findings suggested that confidence in leaders was directly acquired from fulfillment of expectations made by self and others, rather than indirectly through internal processing of job experiences. Implications of the findings for leadership training were also discussed.