Some people recall more positive memories in negative moods than in neutral moods, which is called mood-incongruent effect. Although previous research suggested that structure of self-knowledge influences mood-incongruent effect (Sakaki, 2004), it is possible that motivation for mood-regulation mediates relation between structure of self-knowledge and mood-incongruent effect. The present study aimed at exploring this possibility by using self-complexity. In Study 1, participants with higher self-complexity, whose self-knowledge has more self-aspects with a higher level of differentiation, recalled more positive memories in negative moods (compared to neutral moods) than participants with lower self-complexity, whose self-knowledge has a fewer self-aspects with larger overlap. Study 1 also revealed that these effects hold even when the motivation for mood-regulation was partialed out. Study 2 examined mood-incongruent effect under positive moods, in which participants are unlikely motivated to alter their moods, and it was found that participants with higher self-complexity recalled more negative memories in positive moods (compared to neutral moods) than participants with lower self-complexity.
The present study focused attention on “the paradox of well-being” and “the crisis” of aging discussed in the previous studies, and examined the developmental characteristics of middle and late adulthood regarding the relationship between subjective experiences of aging and domain-specific self evaluation. A questionnaire survey was conducted to 2026 thirty through 75-year-old participants. Within a cross-sectional model, “the paradox of well-being” was verified. It was suggested that aging is a pivotal component of well-being for the middle-aged and elderly. “Leeway and maturation, ” a positive aspect of subjective aging experience, showed positive and far-reaching impacts on self-evaluation. Its function to limit and minimize the negative effect caused by decline was also suggested. The crisis, for men, found in early and post middle-age, was explained as the accumulation of negative effect of aging, mainly relating to the socioeconomic changes. For women, the crisis was inferred to be elicited as a negative impact of aging that spilled over to most facets of self throughout middle and late adulthood.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the intensity of subjective responses, called “agari” (stage fright) and psychophysiological reactions. We considered “agari” as an internal state of psychological and physiological arousal which occurs in performance situations. In this study, heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and respiration rate (RR) were recorded in the rest period, the preparation period, before and after the task, together with some subjective measurements. Each of 31 students gave a speech in front of observers (experimental condition). They were divided into two groups, the high-arousal group (H-group) and low-arousal group (L-group), by the median of “Agari” scores, obtained at the preparation period. A different group of 16 students read an essay aloud without observers (control group). No differences were found on SBP, DBP and RR between H-group and L-group. As for HR, taken in the preparation period, H-group and the control group indicated significantly different values, but L-group and the control group did not. These results suggest the possibility that the intensity of subjective and physiological response of “agari” may be discrepant.
The purpose of this study was to construct an original video-based measurement of maternal mind-mindedness (MM). MM is mother's proclivity to treat her infant as an individual with mind (Meins, 1997). Participants were 38 mothers and their six-month-old infants. The results of assessment suggested that there were large individual differences not only in frequency of maternal mental attributions, but also in the specific contents that mothers read from the filmed infants' behaviors. Moreover, it was revealed that these individual differences in MM were related to mother-infant interaction styles in natural settings, especially maternal comments on infant's internal state and the followings of infant's attention. Finally, the usefulness of this measurement in examining the effect of MM on the child's development of mind understanding was discussed.
This study examined in the interpersonal context whether interactions of intolerance of ambiguity and positive as well as negative life events in a diathesis-stress model predicted changes in mental health. College students, 236 men and women, completed a questionnaire of Revised Interpersonal Intolerance of Ambiguity (IIAS-R), Stress Response, and Happiness scales. They completed one and a half months later another questionnaire of Interpersonal Life Event, Stress Response, and Happiness scales. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that for men interaction terms of IIAS-R's Friend scores with a negative life event score significantly predicted an increase in stress response. For women, interaction terms of IIAS-R's Stranger scores with a negative life event score significantly predicted a decrease in happiness. The results suggested that the diathesis-stress model was partially supported, and men and women were different in terms of the criterion mental-health variables that could be predicted by the interaction terms.
This study examined whether the cooperation of the hippocampus and anterior thalamus via the fimbria-fornix is involved in the spatial memory. We compared the effect of contralateral lesions (Contra) with ipsilateral lesions (Ipsi) of the fimbria-fornix and anterior thalamus on the performance of an object exploration task and the Morris water maze task. If the hippocampus and anterior thalamus take part in a same functional system via fornix, the performance of Contra group will be more disruptive than that of Ipsi group. In the object exploration task, Contra and Ipsi groups did not differ from Control group in the performance of object recognition test. However, the performance of Contra group was significantly impaired in the spatial recognition test, compared with two other groups. In the Morris water maze task, only Contra group showed deficits in spatial learning but not the Ipsi group. These results indicate that contralateral, but not ipsilateral lesion caused deficits in spatial memory, supporting the notion that the functional cooperation of hippocampus and anterior thalamus via fornix is vital for spatial memory.
Empathizing is a drive to identify another person's emotions and thoughts and respond to them appropriately. Systemizing is a drive to analyze systems or construct systems. The Empathizing-Systemizing (E-S) model suggests that these are major dimensions in which individuals differ from each other, and women being superior in empathizing and men in systemizing. In this study, we examined new questionnaires, the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and the Systemizing Quotient (SQ). Participants were 1 250 students, 616 men and 634 women, from eight universities, who completed both the EQ and SQ. Results showed that women scored higher than men on the EQ, and the result was reversed on the SQ. Results also showed that humanities majors scored higher than sciences majors on the EQ, and again the result was reversed on the SQ. The results were discussed in relation to the E-S theory of gender differences.
The aim of this study was to clarify the cognitive aging mechanism of signaling effects on the memory for procedural sentences. Participants were 60 younger adults (college students) and 60 older adults. Both age groups were assigned into two groups; half of each group was presented with procedural sentences with signals that highlighted their top-level structure and the other half with procedural sentences without them. Both groups were requested to perform the sentence arrangement task and the reconstruction task. Each task was composed of procedural sentences with or without signals. Results indicated that signaling supported changes in strategy utilization during the successive organizational processes and that changes in strategy utilization resulting from signaling improved the memory for procedural sentences. Moreover, age-related factors interfered with these signaling effects. This study clarified the cognitive aging mechanism of signaling effects in which signaling supports changes in the strategy utilization during organizational processes at encoding and this mediation promotes memory for procedural sentences, though disuse of the strategy utilization due to aging restrains their memory for procedural sentences.