In visual search situations, it is known that not only bottom-up factors relative to the presented stimulus display but also top-down factors, which include foreknowledge about the target or observers' strategies for the task, have an influence on search performance. The present study examines how top-down attentional control settings affect the visual search process by using the within-dimension facilitation (WDF) and the inter-trial facilitation (ITF) effects. In Experiment 1 we showed the WDF effect using foreknowledge about the target-defining dimension within one block. In Experiment 2 we found the ITF effect using foreknowledge about the target-defining dimension in every trial. These results suggest that search performance is improved both top-down attentional setting using foreknowledge and inter-trial priming by repetition of target-defining dimensions, and they are interactive. Furthermore, the influence of the priming effect strongly appeared when observers had an attentional setting every trial. These results show that the magnitude of bottom-up inter-trial priming effects depends on the top-down attentional setting.
This study investigates the interrelationship between an anthropophobic tendency and narcissistic personality in adolescence. Previous research has proposed that anthropophobia and narcissistic personality disorders can be classified into subtypes. In recent studies, Okano (1998) suggested that the relationship between an anthropophobic tendency and narcissistic personality should be explained in terms of two dimensions (two-dimension model), instead of one dimension (one-dimension model). Questionnaires were administered to 305 adolescents who were enrolled in a university. In analysis 1, the relationship between an anthropophobic tendency and narcissistic personality, which are both within normal limits of anthropophobia and narcissism in adolescence, was examined with a two-dimension model. In analysis 2, the characteristics of self-consciousness and adaptiveness in adolescence, which were classified using a two-dimension model, were examined. The results were as follows: (1) an anthropophobic tendency and narcissistic personality could be explained with a two-dimension model; and (2) the characteristics of five subtypes were revealed in detail.
The purpose of this study is to show that expectations of generalized reciprocity within one's own group are responsible for in-group trust. To test this hypothesis, an allocator choice game in the minimal group situation was used. We assigned the role of a recipient in a dictator game to all 81 subjects, and measured whether they chose to be a recipient of either an in-group or an out-group “allocator” who freely allocate a fixed reward between him/her and a recipient. The results indicate that in-group trust occurs only in the condition in which recipients know that allocators make a reward allocation knowing the group membership of their recipient; recipients show no preference for either an in-group or an out-group allocator when allocators make the decision without knowing the group membership of their recipient. It is thus shown that participants' in-group trust is derived from the general belief that people treat in-group members more favorably than out-group members—a belief about generalized reciprocity within groups.
Many investigators suggested that self referent tasks facilitate mood congruence effect. Self-referential tasks are distinguished from self-descriptive tasks and autobiographical tasks. When using an autobiographical task, there may be different emotional valences of stimulus words and of recalled episodes. This study used an autobiographical task to investigate whether the emotional valences of recalled episodes influenced the mood congruence effect. Fifty-one undergraduate students were randomly assigned to three types of induced-mood groups (positive, negative and neutral). Stimuli were 40 neutral-trait-adjective words, presented at a rate of one word every six seconds. Participants judged whether they could recall any of their autobiographical memory related to the word, and rated the emotional valence of their recalled memory. Results suggested that not only the emotional valence of the stimulus but also the emotional valence of the recalled is important for the mood congruence effect.
The present study investigated the role of spatial frequency components in recognizing age and sex in facial images. In Experiment 1, low (LSF) and high spatial frequencies (HSF) of facial images were morphed between different age groups (one-year-olds, teens, twenties, and sixties), and the participants were required to estimate the age. The results showed that the manipulation of spatial frequency affected age recognition more for the faces including aged than for the faces including infant, suggesting that people use different cues for them. In addition, the recognized age was affected more by HSF components throughout. Recognition of sex was investigated in Experiments 2a and 2b, using the same faces but morphing male and female. In the judgment of sex, unlike for age estimation, the recognition system clearly depended on the LSF. These results were discussed in terms of the different roles of age and sex information and the development of the visual system in early infancy.
The duration of a negative emotional experience is associated with delayed cardiovascular recovery. Cognitive appraisal is thought to play an important role in cutting off these responses, which are related to cardiovascular disease. This study examined the influence of cognitive appraisal on the duration of negative emotional experiences and cardiovascular responses. Before a speech task, participants were told that their performance would be evaluated by means of a video camera and that they would be given the score at the end of the experiment. To manipulate cognitive appraisal, participants were randomly assigned to a group that received one of three instructions following the speech task. The “non-threat” group was informed that there was no evaluation or feedback about the score; the “threat” group received that there were some obscurities in their speech and some questions were given while comparing with the video; the control group was given no instructions. After receiving their respective instructions, all groups were monitored for a post-task period of five minutes. The results showed that the “non-threat” group experienced a decreased negative emotional experience and had a speedy recovery for blood pressure, through the intermediary of a greater decline in total peripheral resistance, than the other groups in the post-task period. These results were discussed in connection with the function of cognitive reappraisal.
The present study aims to examine whether depth perception based on pictorial cues in the peripheral visual field is improved by compensating for the peripheral reduction of visual sensitivity. Figures that partially overlapped or had apparent transparency over a background figure were presented on a CRT monitor at the central-peripheral retinal regions of 2.5-10° eccentricity under the two conditions of same size or size adjusted for the Cortical Magnification Scale (Virsu & Rovamo, 1979). In Experiment 1 the subjects could discriminate the depth relationship of two cortically magnified figures when these were presented within the retinal eccentricity of 10°, even when solutions for the tasks were not dependent on a single visual attribute (brightness, shape). But discrimination in the peripheral visual field became difficult when the number of visual attributes of the stimuli increased (Experiment 2). We conclude that even for peripheral vision, depth perception based on pictorial cues is possible when cortically magnified stimuli are used. However, it should be further study whether or not the visual acuity is an only determinant for the difference between central and peripheral depth perception.
This study examined the influence of directed forgetting on false recognition. Participants studied one of two types of lists consisting of words related to a critical non-presented (CN) word: high or low semantic-associative-strength lists. Thirty-one participants were instructed to forget the 1st list before studying the 2nd list (forget group), another group of 34 participants were instructed to remember both lists (remember group). This was followed by a recognition test and Remember/Know judgments. For CN words, the forget group showed more false recognition than the remember group only for high semantic-associative-strength lists. Moreover, higher proportions of Remember judgments were observed than Know judgments in false recognition responses. These findings are discussed in terms of the activation-monitoring hypothesis of false memories.
We investigated how retrieval conditions affect accuracy-confidence (A-C) relationship sin recognition memory for faces. Seventy participants took a face-recognition test and rated their confidence in their judgment. Twenty-three participants were assigned to a retrieval condition, where they were encouraged to remember background information (scenery) of each picture just before rating their confidence. Twenty-four participants were assigned to a verbalizing condition, in which they were encouraged to remember and verbally describe the background of each picture before rating. Twenty-three participants were assigned to a control condition. The results showed that for the control condition, an A-C relationship was found for old items but not for new items, replicating the results of Takahashi (1998) and Wagenaar (1988). In contrast, in the retrieval condition, an A-C relationship was found for both old and new items. In the verbalizing condition, an A-C relationship was not found for either old or new items. The results showed that retrieving background information affects A-C relationships, supporting the idea that confidence ratings rely not only on memory traces but also on various kinds of information such as retrieved background scenery. Implications for eyewitness testimony were discussed.
This study examines how the use of influence tactics between peers affects the likelihood of eliciting social support. The participants (261 college students) were asked to imagine themselves in one of six scenarios, which described a hypothetical peer agent who usually uses specific influence tactics and the strength of the friendship. Then the participants rated the likelihood of supporting the agent, when the agent confronted a stressful situation. The result shows that the participants gave less spontaneous support to an agent who used hard influence tactics, such as restricting their freedom in choosing a course of action. Regarding emotional support, when they are in a close relationship with the agent, the participants gave the most spontaneous support to the agent using soft influence tactics, such as ingratiation. Participants gave steady socio-emotional support to agents using rational influence tactics, regardless of their relationship. This study also examined how influence tactics affect the participants' impression of the agent.