This paper analyzes the correlations between a Japanese adjective list for personality traits and the Uchida-Kraepelin psycho-diagnostic test based on addition work, which is widely used in Japan, through a confirmatory factor analysis rotation. First, the brief description of the psycho-diagnostic test is made. Second, six kinds of the correlation measures to evaluate the addition work are proposed. The possibility to evaluate the personality traits, based on the Big Five, through these measures is discussed. Third, several confirmatory factor rotations are jointly applied to the combined data of both the Big Five and the proposed measures. The results are analyzed based on both the items and the scales of the Big Five. The possibility to evaluate the personality traits through the psychodiagnostic test in term of the Big Five is suggested.
This study investigated the effect of task demand on the allocation of attention in a large three-dimensional (3-D) space. Two load conditions were conducted. In the low load condition, the observer was required to judge whether a target appeared nearer or further than the fixation point. In the high load condition, the observer was also required to judge whether the target appeared at the same position as the fixation point. Pre-cues, which indicated the spatial location of a target, were used in order to control attentional shifts in depth. There were three conditions about cue validity: valid, invalid and neutral conditions. The results indicated that the effect of cue validity was more significant in the high load condition. Furthermore, the attentional effect (the difference between invalid and valid conditions) changed with regard to the target position in the high load condition, but remained unchanged in the low load condition. This suggests that attentional allocation can be changed depending on the task demand in a large 3-D space.
Previous research has shown that in enumeration tasks, “subitizing” is a rapid and an accurate process used with 1-4 items, and that “counting” is a slow and an inaccurate process used with over four items. It has been suggested that the former task is preattentive, whereas the latter task is attentive. We investigated whether item-size invariance and pattern symmetry affected subitizing and counting speeds. Participants enumerated dots, which were continuously presented, as quickly and as accurately as possible. Results of Experiment 1 indicated that the variance of dot-size was independent of enumeration time, suggesting that the variance in attentional allocation to each dot affected neither subitizing nor counting processes. Results of Experiment 2 indicated that pattern symmetry did not increase the capacity for subitizing, but increased the speed of counting. These results suggest that the capacity of subitizing is four items regardless of item-size invariance and pattern regularity. Moreover, the pattern configuration affected the speed of counting, whereas item features did not.
This study examined the impact of mothers' adherence to “maternal love” on maternal emotional expression toward their children. It was postulated that adherence to “maternal love” (defined as the tendency to accept and obey blindly the traditional maternal role and sociocultural belief in “desirable mothers”) would have both positive and negative effects on maternal emotional expression, depending on the mothers' occupational status and satisfaction in workplace. The results showed an interaction between mothers' adherence to “maternal love” and the mothers' satisfaction in the workplace, which affected their expression of emotion. When satisfaction in the workplace was rated in the middle, it was positively associated with positive emotional expression. When satisfaction in the workplace was rated as high, it was both positively and negatively associated with positive emotional expression for full-time workers. Moreover, when satisfaction in the workplace was rated as in the middle, it was negatively associated with negative emotional expression, and when satisfaction in the workplace was rated as low or high, it was positively associated with negative emotional expression for all workers. These findings confirmed that mothers' adherence to “maternal love” is “the double-edged sword”.
An Internet survey targeting at from 200 to 500 samples in every prefecture in Japan (n=15, 316) was conducted in order to analyze the expression of attitudes or silence regarding public works. The data indicated those who had different attitudes from the perceived public attitude were likely to express their attitudes, those whose attitude was neutral were not likely to express it, and those with positive attitudes were likely to express more than those with negative attitudes. The tendency that those with positive attitudes were more likely to express them than those with negative attitudes decreased as the residential population increased. Those with positive attitudes in Tokyo kept “silence” regarding their attitudes, similar to those with neutral attitudes. Analysis regarding the attitudes in different prefectures indicated that attitudes toward public works were positively related to the yearly public stake in the prefecture.
We compared the regret that people report in individual and group decision-making in two experimental studies. In the first study, thirty-nine participants were randomly assigned to either an individual or a group decision-making condition, and then failed on an assigned task. They were asked to rate their regret and cognitive variables of controllability, internal and external factors related to their failure. Participants in the group decision condition, reported less regret than in the individual decision condition. In the second study, we added individual and group decision conditions where the participants heard others express regret. Fifty-eight participants played and lost the same game in the four conditions. In the group decision condition, we found that the participants who heard others express regret reported more regret than the participants who did not hear others' regret. These findings suggest that the expression of regret enhances others' regret. Some implications of the findings are discussed.
When a brief visual cue is presented and followed by a static bar stimulus, the bar is perceived to be drawn rapidly away from the cue end toward the uncued end (the “line-motion illusion”). Previous research has reported that this illusion is observed with the use of lateral auditory or tactile cues. The present study revealed that the same illusion can be observed when both the cue and the line are presented in the tactile modality (Experiment 1) and when the visual cue was presented prior to the tactile line (Experiments 2 and 3). These results suggest that this illusion is not limited to the visual modality. The implications of the findings for the supramodal nature and possible sources of the effect are discussed.
This study developed revised Japanese versions of the self perception profile for Children, for Adolescents and for College Students. The original versions have an idiosyncratic and time-consuming item format, which was revised by using only one statement for each item. Subjects were fifth to sixth grade students (Boys=129, Girls=152), tenth to twelfth grade students (Boys=112, Girls=100), and college students (Boys=96, Girls=153) in Japan. The reliability and validity measures showed that the revised versions were similar to the original versions. The present study provides some evidence for the use of these scales with Japanese students.
A sense of direction is said to depend on at least two factors, awareness of orientation and memory for spatial behavior. This study investigated whether these two factors could predict navigational performance in the actual world. Takeuchi's Sense of Direction Questionnaire (SDQ) was administered to 233 students, and two factors were identified: awareness of orientation (Factor I) and memory for spatial behavior (Factor II). From these students, thirty participants chosen based on their Factor I scale-score (high-and low-group) to participate in a navigation experiment. The experimenter led them to one place and asked them to come back to the start point on their own. To manipulate the participants' ability related to Factor II, half of the participants were instructed to count backwards as a distractor-task during the approach route. The high-group came back to the start point faster than the low-group. Moreover, the participants without the distractor-task more often explored shortcuts on the return route, whereas those with the distractor-tasks more often chose the same route as the approach route. These results indicate that the SDQ could predict navigational performance in the actual world.