It is well known that long-term information contributes to verbal working memory. Although the phonological loop is assumed to have an important role in verbal working memory, the processing of long-term information is supposed to occur in another system, and the executive function is presumably involved in this process. Long-term information that affects verbal working memory can be divided into two types of representations: semantic information and long-term phonological knowledge. We used a dual-task method to investigate the role of the executive function in the processing of these two types of representation. We focused on the concreteness effect and the frequency effect, which are assumed to reflect semantic information and long-term phonological knowledge, respectively. The concreteness effect was banished when the executive function was disrupted by focusing on verbal semantic features. The frequency effect remained intact when the executive function was disrupted, while the burden on the phonological loop caused the effect to be decreased. We concluded that the executive function plays a crucial role in the processing of verbal semantic information, but not in the processing of long-term phonological knowledge.
This article develops a scale of affects in opposite-sex relationships, and investigates affects of opposite-sex love, unrequited love, and friendship. In study 1 (N=231), a factor analysis of the affect items produced four factors: passion, affiliation-dissatisfaction, respect/trust, and aggressive/refusal. All scales were shown to be reasonably reliable (α>.80) In study 2 (N=295), the test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from .59 to .67. In study 3 (N=406), confirmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor structure. The results also showed that respect/trust was important for opposite-sex friendships. Affiliation-dissatisfaction was an important factor in unrequited love. Most important for lover relationships were passionate affects, respect/trust affects, and aggressive/refusal affects.
The present study developed and evaluated the Positive Automatic Thoughts List (PAL) to explore the roles and function of self-talk in a Japanese population in positive situations. In Study 1, 22 items were chosen to construct the PAL. Five factors were identified, I. Expressions of Positive Emotion, II. Positive Expectations of Future and Self, III. Positive Self-Evaluation, IV. Having Social Support, and V. Hope for Maintaining Positive Mood. All these factors had high degrees of internal consistency. Factors I and V have never been identified in previous studies, these factors may characterized Japanese positive automatic thoughts. In Study 2, the concurrent validity of the PAL was examined. The results showed that the PAL total scores were significantly correlated with the Self rating Depression Scale (r=-.29) and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire-Revised (Positive: r=.46, Negative: r=-.16). Study 3 confirmed the clinical validity of the PAL, discriminating between healthy undergraduates and depressed outpatients. We discussed that Factor I could be closely related to the increase of positive affect and to the maintenance of depressive states.
This study investigated the functions of involuntary memory, which is memory of personal experience that pops into mind without a conscious attempt at retrieval. Thirteen undergraduates recorded the contents of their involuntary memories and the circumstances surrounding their occurrence, such as the participant's activity. In addition, the participants described the effect of the involuntary memory on their thought and action in that situation. Analysis of the data showed that the dominant function of involuntary memory was self-confirmation. The subsets of this function were: (a) recognition of one's existence in the past, (b) recognition of one's own psychological traits in the past, (c) discovering new traits of oneself through checking one's personal past, (d) understanding the change of one's traits, and (e) recognizing the consistency of one's traits. These results indicate that one of the main functions of involuntary autobiographical memory may be to provide a sense of self-continuity.
In Experiment 1, undergraduates first made choices hypothetically between an uncertain large reward and a certain small reward, second they made choices with real money, and finally they again made hypothetical choices. The discounting rates in the first hypothetical reward condition were higher than those in the following conditions of real or hypothetical rewards. A significant difference in the discounting rate across conditions was not found when the real reward condition was replaced by the hypothetical reward condition (Experiment 2) or by the condition with probability contingency and hypothetical reward (Experiment 3). The difference in the discounting rate was replicated between the hypothetical and real reward conditions when the participants invested money when they selected an uncertain-large reward (Experiment 4). Johnson & Bickel (2002) found no difference in the discounting rate between hypothetical and real rewards when the real rewards were delivered to participants not during but after the experiment. The present experiments, by contrast, delivered real money immediately after every choice, and demonstrate that real and hypothetical rewards differ in the values of discounting rates.
The influence of hostility on cortisol levels in saliva was investigated in 47 university students (27 males and 20 females). The students were divided into high and low hostility groups by cluster analyses based on their scores on the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire and the Müller Anger Coping Questionnaire. Their saliva was collected twice, in the morning immediately after awakening at a two week interval. On the day before saliva collection, they completed questionnaires about stressful events and their moods in the previous two weeks. The results of the ANOVA showed higher cortisol levels and higher frequencies of stressful events and negative moods in the high hostility group. The effect of hostility on cortisol levels was diminished by controlling for stressful events and negative moods, which suggests that stressful events and negative moods are mediators between hostility and cortisol. The results are discussed in relation to the association between hostility and coronary heart disease.
This study examined the effects of a stress management program for university students related to their stressors, problem-solving abilities (problem-solving confidence, approach-avoidance style, and personal control), knowledge of stress, and stress responses. Participants (n=27) were randomly assigned to either an intervention or a waiting list control group. The program, including small group discussions, completion of a workbook, and follow-up interviews, was conducted for the intervention group for three weeks. Participants (n=8 and n=12 for the intervention and waiting list control groups, respectively) responded to three waves of questionnaires (pre, post, and follow-up). The results showed significant favorable intervention effects for knowledge of stress, problem-solving confidence, and stress responses on the post-tests, while no intervention effects were found at the follow-up.
This study examined the relationship between junior high school students' interpersonal behavior styles and their adjustment to school. Active self-assertion, egoistic self-assertion, and exclusive attitudes toward other small group members were used as factors of interpersonal behavior. A questionnaire was completed by 710 students in the first year of junior high school. The following significant results were obtained. Girls whose active self-assertion and exclusive attitude scores were high, or all factors scores were high, were satisfied with their friends and school. Boys whose interpersonal behavior was passive were the least satisfied with their friends and school. In addition, boys and girls whose active self-assertion scores were high studied very diligently. The relationships among active self-assertion, egoistic self-assertion, and exclusive attitudes toward other small group members by junior high school students had a great influence on their adjustment to school.
Studies have revealed a number of instances of cross-modal spatial interactions between vision and touch. However, few studies have addressed the possible role of cross-modal interactions in the identification of objects. This study assessed whether tactile pattern perception is affected by adding a concurrent visual stimulus. Participants were required to discriminate the orientation of tactile grating patterns, which were presented in synchrony or asynchrony with a task-irrelevant visual grating pattern that had the same or different orientation as the tactile pattern. The results demonstrated that accuracy in discriminating grating orientation was reduced when the tactile and visual gratings differed in orientation, but only when the two modalities were presented concurrently. The findings are discussed in terms of multisensory integration for processing of shape information.
The generative concern scale (GCS) and the generative behavior checklist (GBC) based on the multifaceted model of generativity (McAdams & de St. Aubin, 1992) were reconstructed based on item analysis in preliminary research. The reconstructed scales were administered to 996 adults. Factor analysis of GCS-R and GBC-R data revealed the following three factors which showed high internal consistency: offering, maintaining, and creativity. Significant positive correlations between the GCS-R and the GBC-R implied that generative concern may lead to generative behavior. The GCS-R and GBC-R showed significant positive correlations with the Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (Nakanishi & Sakata, 1993) and the Inventory of Psychosocial Balance (Domino & Affonso, 1990), which supports concurrent validity. Adults with higher scores on the GCS-R were more extroverted, open-minded to experiences, and the less depressive based on scores on the Big Five Scale (Wada, 1996) and the Beck Depression Inventory (Hayashi & Takimoto, 1991). These results indicate convergent and predictive validity.
Previous research has shown that the act of remembering can cause forgetting of related information which is known as retrieval-induced forgetting. This study investigates the durability of this inhibitory effect over time. The participants were 92 university students. Using a standard retrieval-practice paradigm, we manipulated the delay between retrieval-practice and a final category-cued recall test (i. e., no delay, ten minutes, one hour, and one week). The results showed that retrieval-induced forgetting occurred at all retention intervals, even after one week. The magnitude of impairment did not change across the retention intervals. The mechanism that enables the durability of retrieval-induced forgetting, even over long periods of time, is discussed.