Self-focused attention is considered to be a cognitive characteristic of depression. However, some articles report that self-focused attention is also related to anxiety. This study examines the differential relationships of self-focused attention to depression and anxiety. The Preoccupation Scale, Self-rating Depression Scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory T-Form were administered to 454 undergraduate students. The results showed a partial correlation between self-focused attention and anxiety that was significant while controlling for depression, but the partial correlation between self-focused attention and depression was not significant while controlling for anxiety. In addition, the results of an analysis of covariance structure revealed that self-focused attention was related to anxiety, and the relationship between self-focused attention and depression was due to the mediating effect of anxiety. Therefore, it was suggested that self-focused attention appears to be a significant component of cognitive operations for anxiety, but not for depression.
Guided by regulatory focus theory, this study examined the effects of goal framing on the subjective experience of affect and the accessibility of affective representations. Study 1 examined lay persons' beliefs concerning the relationship between goal framing and certain kinds of affective experiences. The results indicated that a promotion focus was associated with happiness and disappointment, whereas a prevention focus was associated with relaxation and tension. Study 2 examined the effect of goal framing on the activation of affective representations, and found that a promotion focus activated both gain-related representations (happy and disappointment) and loss-related representations (relaxation and tension), whereas a prevention focus activated only loss-related representations. These results suggest that goal framing activates particular affective representations, and the activated affective representations may influence the interpretation of positive or negative experiences. The discussion considered the function of the activation of affective representations as a mediator between goal framing and its cognitive and behavioral consequences.
We examined the time course of apparent motion and apparent displacement of a visual target, and also the horizontal deviation of apparent straight-ahead related to left-posterior neck-muscle vibration. In Experiment 1, eight observers verbally judged the apparent motion and displacement of a visual target for 60s from prior to the vibration to after its offset. We found that rightward apparent motion was an almost identical in magnitude during the vibration and disappeared within 20s after the vibration offset. In contrast, rightward apparent displacement gradually increased during the vibration, and was sustained over 40s after the vibration offset. In Experiment 2, five observers manually pointed to the position of a visual point in the median plane; the mean pointed position in the vibration condition was found to deviate maximally 3° to the right of the mean pointed position in the control condition. In Experiment 3, the same observers closed their eyes and pointed to the apparent straight-ahead; the mean pointed positions did not differ between the vibration and control conditions.
The relationship between sexism and mate preference was investigated to elucidate characteristics of sexist courtship styles. A relationship with an opposite-sex partner is a contradiction for sexist individuals because they seek an opposite-sex partner despite their discriminatory attitudes and beliefs regarding the opposite sex. Therefore, this study hypothesized that there would be a tendency for sexist individuals not to seek emotional bonds with their partners, but to seek egocentric and instrumental relationships. Questionnaires were administered to university students (n=400). The results indicated that male sexists tended to emphasize the partner's physical attractiveness and female sexists tended to emphasize the partner's financial situation, physical attractiveness, and the desire for short-term relationships. These results were discussed in terms of sexist adaptation to opposite-sex relationships.
This study was conducted to examine intergenerational transmission of attachment styles between late-adolescent children and their mothers. The purpose of the study was to reveal whether the two attachment dimensions, “Anxiety (about relationship)” and “Avoidance (of intimacy)” were related between children and their mothers, and whether these relations were mediated by the both children's and mothers' perceptions of parenting. Participants were 209 pairs of late-adolescent children and their mothers. Results revealed that the attachment dimensions of “Anxiety” and “Avoidance” in children significantly correlated to the same dimensions in their mothers. Based on attachment theory, it was hypothesized that intergenerational transmission of attachment styles was caused by the influence of the following factors: “(a) mothers' attachment styles, (b) mothers' perceptions of parenting, (c) children's perceptions of their mothers' parenting, and (d) children's attachment styles”, and possible causal models of the influence processes among those variables were developed and tested in the data analyses. The results showed the validity of these processes for the intergenerational transmission of attachment styles. These results are discussed in terms of the relationships between children and mothers and late-adolescent/adult attachment styles.
This study examined effects of arousal level on the physiological responses in a polygraph examination using the Concealed Information Test (CIT). Thirty-nine healthy college students were tested with or without evaluative observation. Electrodermal activity, blood pressure, heart rate, normalized pulse volume, and respiration were recorded. Observation elevated participants' arousal level, which was manifested in self-reports, high skin conductance level, and low normalized pulse volume (i.e., vasoconstriction). However, differential reactivity to critical and non-critical items on the physiological measures was less affected by observation. These results suggested that participants' arousal level has little effect on differential physiological reactivity on the CIT.
This research develops a new method for analyzing relation for factors which combines graphical modeling (GM) and factor analysis. In this method, estimation of the inverse of the variance-covariance matrix is done in the framework of factor analysis, and then the data-model fit is investigated using GM. The partial correlation coefficients of the estimated model are calculated, and the estimation of parameters is repeated until discovery of the worst fit index. In order to confirm the effectiveness of this method, three correlation matrices were analyzed as a real data study. In first and second case, intelligence models of Harman and Turstone were restructured using this method. In third case, EQ model was structured using it. The results show that this method can be apply GM for latent variables and a good assistant to set up path models for factors.
Do non-native speakers of the Japanese language understand the symbolic values of Japanese onomatopoeia matching a voiced/unvoiced consonant with a big/small sound made by a big/small object? In three experiments, participants who were native speakers of Japanese, Japanese-learning Chinese, or Chinese without knowledge of the Japanese language were shown two pictures. One picture was of a small object making a small sound, such as a small vase being broken, and the other was of a big object making a big sound, such as a big vase being broken. Participants were presented with two novel onomatopoetic words with voicing contrasts, e.g., /dachan/vs./tachan/, and were told that each word corresponded to one of the two pictures. They were then asked to match the words to the corresponding pictures. Chinese without knowledge of Japanese performed only at chance level, whereas Japanese and Japanese-learning Chinese successfully matched a voiced/unvoiced consonant with a big/small object respectively. The results suggest that the key to understanding the symbolic values of voicing contrasts in Japanese onomatopoeia is some basic knowledge that is intrinsic to the Japanese language.
The purpose of this study was to typify rumor talk in university students' everyday conversation. This study investigated the structure of rumor in conversation from the viewpoint of content attributes and functions. Study 1 found two types of rumor talk, “humor type” and “anxiety type”, based on seven content attributes (humor, anxiety, certainty, importance, reliability, sharing of topic, and easiness of interpretation) and four functions (entertainment, spicing up, avoiding silence, and information supplement). “Humor type” was high humor and low certainty, and had an entertainment function. “Anxiety type” was low humor and high anxiety, and had an information supplement function. Study 2, which typified rumor talk based on three content attributes (humor, anxiety, and certainty), found a “daily type” and a “sensation-seeking type” in addition to the two types of study 1. “Daily type” was high certainty, and had an information supplement function. “Sensation-seeking type” was high humor, high anxiety, and low certainty.
The measures used in previous studies did not consider the situation where an individual exhibits impulsive behavior. The present research examines the relationship between self reported measures and behavioral measures of impulsive abandonment and panic behavior in a problem-solving situation. The self Impulsive Behavior Questionnaire (Yamaguchi & Suzuki, 2005) was the self-reported measure of the impulsive behavior tendency. The 91 undergraduate participants were grouped based on this score (high, n=31; middle, n=33; low, n=27) were used. The behavioral measures were the correct detection and commission errors on the Continuous Performance Test. The result showed that the high impulsive group made a significantly higher number of commission errors than did the low group. The findings of this study support a consistent relationship between behavioral and self-reported measures.
An ultimatum game and two impunity games, in which rejection by the Responder had no impact on the Proposer's earnings, were conducted with 228 participants. The impunity game was run in two conditions: with feedback information, where the Responder's choice was disclosed to the Proposer, and without feedback information, where the Responder's choice was not disclosed to the Proposer. These two conditions were used to determine whether the motivation for rejection in the impunity game was social punishment or identity protection. The three game conditions and the Responder or Proposer roles were manipulated between participants. The rejection rates in the two impunity games were about half the rate in the ultimatum game: there was no difference in the rejection rates between the two feedback conditions of the impunity game. These results indicate that rejection in the ultimatum game is largely based on identity protection. The adaptive role of maintaining self-image as a commitment device was discussed.