This study examined the development of the thinking strategy that leads to the conclusion that not every simple problem has a simple solution (indetermination). The development of this strategy was examined by studying the developmental process of indeterminate conditional reasoning, using the following three conditionals: category-based, causal, and deontic. The experiment was conducted with a total of 100 children between late four and early six years of age. First, the children were administered the indeterminate conditional reasoning task and the comprehension task, which examined whether or not they understood the statement that not every simple problem has a simple solution. The results revealed that although young children understood the concept of indetermination, they were not always able to draw an indeterminate conclusion. On being encouraged to change their viewpoint, the children found it easier to arrive at the correct conclusion. The development of the thinking strategy and ways to encourage it were discussed based on the results.
The purpose of this study was to develop the Japanese Defensive Pessimism Inventory (JDPI), which measures defensive pessimism in an academic achievement situation for Japanese undergraduate students and differentiates between those who are realistically pessimistic and those who are defensively pessimistic. In Study 1, 695 undergraduates completed the JDPI. A factor analysis revealed that the 24 items of the JDPI comprised four factors: Pessimism, Past experience, Positive reflectivity, and Effort. In Study 2, 618 undergraduates completed the JDPI, the Test Coping Strategy Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The JDPI had high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Defensive pessimists and strategic optimists had higher scores on the active coping strategy and lower scores on the avoidant-thinking coping strategy than did realistic pessimists. Furthermore, defensive pessimists and realistic pessimists had higher scores on the state anxiety and lower scores on the optimistic-thinking coping strategy than did strategic optimists. The results indicate that the JDPI had high concurrent validity.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the relation between joking behaviors with friends and personality factors (preference for humor, self-esteem). Also the study examined whether relational factors (cognitions of the joking relationship) affect joking behavior. In Study 1, undergraduates (n=238) completed a questionnaire concerning joking behaviors and personality factors. The results indicated that the scale has sufficient reliability and validity. In Study 2, questionnaire date from undergraduates (n=208) were used to examined (a)difference in joking behaviors between best friends and ordinary friends of the same sex, as well as (b)the effect of cognitions regarding the joking relationship (understanding the friend and being accepted by the friend) on joking behaviors. The results indicated that participants used aggressive jokes, self-enhancing jokes and everyday jokes significantly more with best friends compared to ordinary friend. Covariance structure analysis indicated that the sense of being accepted by an ordinary friend promoted aggressive jokes, whereas the sense of being accepted by the best friend reduced the need for other-enhancing jokes.
This questionnaire study investigated career consciousness among 348 Japanese female freshman and sophomore college students. Variables included career consciousness (belief in the idea of a best-fit vocation, passivity, and giving priority to personal interests), vocational motives (self-improvement, interpersonal, status), as well as career decision-making self-efficacy (self-appraisal, gathering occupational information) and career exploration (self and environmental exploration). The results of causal analyses showed that the belief in the idea of a best-fit vocation and passivity had effects on all three vocational motives, but giving priority to personal interests had an effect only on motivation for self-improvement. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models were constructed with career exploration as dependent variables, career consciousness as fixed factors, and career decision-making self-efficacy as covariates. The results of the analyses showed that students who had high career decision-making self-efficacy engaged in both self exploration and environmental exploration activities with a higher frequency. Students with a greater passive tendency toward their career engaged in both self and environmental exploration with a lower frequency. Belief in the idea of a best-fit vocation was associated only with differences in frequency of self exploration. Giving priority to personal interests did not produce differences in career exploration activities.
Recent cross-cultural research suggests that East Asians are more likely than their Western counterparts to be sensitive to contextual information. In this experimental research study, we presented a blinking circle situated at the center of the computer screen for 30s. Both Japanese and Western participants were alternately engaged in two different tasks: (a)A single target circle, and (b)a target circle with four surrounding circles. In either case, they were asked to focus only on the target circle while ignoring the surrounding information. The results indicated that, even though the Japanese attempted to focus on the center circle, they failed to focus only on the center circle. Their number of fixations and variances from the center to each fixation points were significantly larger than found with the Westerners. This effect was stronger when four circles surrounded the target circle compared to a single circle. These findings suggest that cultural influences on basic psychological processes may be very deep.
Previous studies demonstrated that attention can be quickly guided to a target location in a visual search task when the spatial configurations of search items and/or the object identities were repeated in the previous trials. This phenomenon is termed contextual cueing. Recently, it was reported that spatial configuration learning and object identity learning occurred independently, when novel contours were used as search items. The present study examined whether this learning occurred independently even when the search items were meaningful. The results showed that the contextual cueing effect was observed even if the relationships between the spatial locations and object identities were jumbled (Experiment 1). However, it disappeared when the search items were changed into geometric patterns (Experiment 2). These results suggest that the spatial configuration can be learned independent of the object identities; however, the use of the learned configuration is restricted by the learning situations.
This study examined moderating effects of underbenefitting and overbenefitting exchange orientations on the relationship between support reciprocity in friendships and mood among elementary, junior high, and senior high school students. The participants were 262 first-year senior high school students, 223 second-year junior high school students, and 248 sixth-year elementary school students. The participants completed questionnaires regarding mutual support in friendships, stress responses, and two types of exchange orientations (underbenefitting and overbenefitting exchange orientation). For senior high school students, an underbenefitting orientation had a moderating effect on the relationships between support reciprocity and depression. Among senior high school students low in underbenefitting orientation, individuals who felt slightly underbenefitted regarding support exchange in friendships reported the lowest degree of depression. In addition, individuals high in underbenefitting orientation tended to express a higher level of depression than those low in underbenefitting orientation when they felt slightly underbenefitted.
This study aimed to examine the goal consciousness scale as lifespan developmental index in young adult workers, and the relationship between work values and the goal consciousness. Survey data from 240 young adult workers were used, two subscales in work values scale and five subscales in goal consciousness scale were confirmed by factor analyses. Analysis of variance (ANOVAs) showed that goal-confidence and time-management were high with high expert-orientation or low work-as-devise-orientation. Thirst for goal was low with low expert-orientation and low work-as-devise-orientation. Anxiety about the future was high with high work-as-devise-orientation in the case of males who have high expert-orientation. Planning was high with low work-as-devise-orientation in the case of male. These results indicated that expert-orientation promotes goal-consciousness, work-as-devise-orientation disturbs it, especially, expert-as-devise-orientation raises anxiety for the future.
This article reviewed research from the developmental perspective on psychological problems associated with congenital Visible Differences in appearance, such as a cleft lip and/or palate, or a port wine stain. People with such congenital Visible Differences, often experience psychological problems from an early age. At each developmental stage, they report distinct psychological problems because of their Visible Difference such as negative self concept, and social difficulties such as teasing, difficulty obtaining a job, difficulty making friends. To prevent these various psycho-social problems, the needs for liaison support by psychologists, school teachers, medical doctors and nurses from their early age are discussed. Further research in this area is needed to understand their problems and construct support for each their developmental stage.