The role of expectancies regarding negative mood regulation in improving the mood states of undergraduate students when they experience both negative and positive life events was investigated. In Study 1, a Japanese language scale for measuring expectancies for negative mood regulation (NMR scale) was developed. In Study 2, undergraduates (n=95) completed the NMR scale twice within an interval of five-weeks. They also completed a self-rating depression scale and a scale of life events in interpersonal and achievement domains. The results indicated that participants with high NMR scores did not experience depression when they faced negative events, if they concurrently experienced positive life events. These results suggest that expectancies for negative mood regulation alleviate the negative mood states by using a mood regulation strategy moderated by positive life events, and predict the level of depression.
This study examined how daughter's reported quality of their mother-daughter relationships during childhood and adulthood is related to their psychological well-being (depressive symptoms and self-esteem). A cross-sectional sample of 363 women, age 26 to 35 years, completed questionnaires. The association between the quality of daughters' relationships with their mothers and their psychological well-being depended on the daughters' marital and parental status. Regression estimates suggested that among single daughters and married daughters with children, childhood attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) significantly contributed to psychological well-being, even after controlling for the effects of current closeness and excessive dependence. Current closeness, and excessive care seeking and care giving to their mother contributed to the psychological well-being of single daughters and married daughters without children, even after controlling for the effects of childhood attachment.
We investgated visual illusions of a vertical gradient by using minitures of a road in three experiments. The independent variables were the pitched visual pattern around the road and the pitched floor on which the observer stood. The dependent variable was the angle of the road that the observer adjusted to appear to be level in depth. In Experiment 1, the experimental room was pitched independently of the pitched floor on which the observer stood. Pitching the room was found to be effective for the illusion, but pitching the floor was not. In Experiment 2, the horizontally striped pattern of the sidewalls was pitched in the range of ± 30° and the height of the sidewalls was also varied. The illusion was found to be maximal for patterns pitched at ± 10°, but the sidewall height did not influence the illusion. In Experiment 3, six visual patterns that were produced by combining horizontal and vertical stripes were pitched at ± 10°. The results showed that the lattice pattern was the most effective, and the horizontal stripe was more effective than the vertical, in contributing to the illusion.
Based on the load theory and the assumption that each hemisphere has independent resources, we examined the effects of perceptual load in each hemisphere on the compatibility effect. In Experiments 1, and 2ab, two letter-strings were presented to the left and right visual-fields with a distracter, which was presented on the center of the screen. Two conditions were prepared by pairing a letter-string which contained a target with one which did not. Right-handed participants were asked to identify the target in the letter-strings while ignoring the distracter. The results showed that the compatibility effect was larger when the perceptual load of the letter-string which did not contain a target was low. This suggests that the residual resources of the hemisphere where the target was not projected facilitated the processing of the distracter. In Experiment 3, two letter-strings were presented to both hemispheres. The results showed that the compatibility effect was constant, irrespective of the perceptual load of the letter-string. Our findings suggested that selective attention is modulated by the resources of each hemisphere.
To investigate interhemispheric transfer of language information, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during performance of a semantic matching task in which prime and target word pairs were sequentially presented to either the left (LVF) or the right (RVF) visual field. A posterior slow negative shift prior to the target presentation developed over both hemispheres for LVF primes, whereas for RVF primes the negative shift declined over the right hemisphere. An N400 attenuation was observed for targets semantically related to the primes and was predominant over the left parietal site. The N400 priming effect was significantly reduced for LVF targets preceded by RVF primes, compared to other patterns of presentation. These findings indicate that semantic priming is attenuated in the right hemisphere when information is transferred from the left hemisphere.
This study investigated developmental changes and sex differences in infants' responses to a female stranger during a face-to-face interaction, still-face, and reunion phase. Twenty-two infants (11 boys and 11 girls) were observed at five and nine months of age. At five months, the infants smiled less in the still-face phase, while at nine months the infants smiled less at each subsequent phase. Girls, but not boys, smiled more at nine months than five months. Girls' gazing toward the social partner's face decreased during the still-face and reunion phases. Girls gazed toward the social partner's face more than the boys, independent of the phases and age. The findings support the view the effect of a still-face on infants is robust at both five and nine months and for both sexes. But the effect remained in the reunion phase only for the nine-month-olds. These findings suggest that girls have more interest in their social partner than boys.
This study investigated the influence of odor cueing on the retrieval process for autobiographical memories. In Experiment 1, forty two participants were asked to retrieve autobiographical memories in response to a label cue only, or a label cue with a congruent odor cue, or label cue with an incongruent odor cue. The results showed that in the label cue only condition and the incongruent odor cue condition, the latency with a concurrent task was slower than with no concurrent task. However, this was not observed in the congruent odor cue condition. In order to verify the results of Experiment 1, in Experiment 2, twenty participants were investigated with regard to autobiographical memories cued by odors having a high or low rate of identification. The results showed that memories cued by odors with a high rate of identification were retrieved faster. These results suggest that dual processing by odor and label promotes retrieval processes for autobiographical memories.
This research examined workers' and supervisors' evaluations of their relationships and coping behaviors as related to the workers' psychological stress responses. The participants were full-time workers and students working part-time jobs. This study focused on both informal and formal relationships. The results showed that full-time workers who evaluated their informal relationships with their supervisors as being more negative and perceived their supervisors' evaluations as being more positive had greater psychological stress responses. The psychological stress responses of students working part-time jobs were not significantly associated with their evaluations or their supervisors' evaluations. The results for full-time workers indicate that supervisors' positive evaluations of their informal relationships increased the subordinates' psychological stress responses. The proportion of variance attributed to the coping behavior of full-time workers was lower than for students working part-time jobs.
Previous research suggested that larger probabilistic rewards were discounted more steeply than smaller probabilistic rewards (the magnitude effect). This research tests the hypothesis that the magnitude effect reflects the extent to which individuals distrust the stated probability of receiving different amounts of rewards. The participants were 105 college students. Probability discounting of two different amounts of rewards (5 000 yen and 100 000 yen) and the subjective probability of reward receipt of the different amounts (5 000 yen, 100 000 yen and 1 000 000 yen) were measured. The probabilistic 100 000 yen was discounted more steeply than the probabilistic 5 000 yen. The subjective probability of reward receipt was higher in the 5 000 yen than in the 100 000 yen condition. The proportion of subjective probability of receiving 5 000 yen to that of receiving 100 000 yen was significantly correlated with the proportion of degree of probability discounting for 5 000 yen to that for 100 000 yen. These results were consistent with the hypothesis stated above.