The role of implicit and explicit memory in hypermnesia was investigated using a priming procedure based on the alternative retrieval pathways (ARP) hypothesis (Kazén & Solís-Macías, 1999). Sixty words were studied in the format-translation condition (pictures were drawn for the words) or no format-translation condition (mirror characters of the words were written). Then, word-stem priming tests were conducted three times immediately and three times one week later. Based upon Bowers and Schacter (1990), the participants were classified into an intention or no-intention group according to the retrieval intention of used in the study episode. The results showed that hypermnesia occurred in the intention group, but not in the no-intention group. The ARP hypothesis could be useful to predict the quality of reminiscence, but not for the occurrence of hypermnesia. Hypermnesia occurred in explicit memory but not in implicit memory in this study.
This study examined how three types of aggression (reactive-expressive, reactive-inexpressive, and proactive-relational) influence empathy (empathic cognition, role-taking, sharing emotion, and helping) which were regarded as the emotional aspects of social information processing (SIP). Elementary school children (grades four to six; n=667) completed a set of questionnaires consisting of the Proactive- Reactive Aggression Questionnaire for assessing the three types of aggression and an originally developed hypothetical-conflict-situation instrument for children’s empathy responses to each of the three types of aggressive responses, which were presented using vignettes. Results showed that, compared to non-aggressive children, proactive-relationally aggressive children felt fewer empathy responses except for role-taking in any aggressive-response situations. This result was also supported by the structural equation modeling analyses that were conducted to verify whether children’s aggression causes their distortion of empathy. The implication that proactive-relationally aggressive children seemed to have deficits in the emotional components of the SIP was discussed.
The sense of unwanted transparency refers to feelings that are experienced when someone appears to notice someting during an interaction which one would rather not have them notice. This study investigated the effect of cognitive load on responses arising from the sense of unwanted transparency. First, the cognitive load required for intentional control of self-presentation and the sense of unwanted transparency were manipulated and nonverbal responses were measured. These activities with participans were videotaped. Then, observers were asked to rate videotapes of the participants for verbal content and their overall impressions. the results indicated that participants with a higher cognitive load displayed more nonverbal responses and less adequate verbal responses than participants with a lower cognitive load. Furthermore, the cognitive load affected the observers' impressions through responses arising from the sense of unwanted transparency.
This study investigates the relation between phonology and orthography in word recognition in college-level readers with different first languages (L1). It also examines whether word recognition processes in L1 influence those processes in the second language (L2), which was English in the study. Participants were divided into two groups according to their L1 (Japanese, Chinese), and were given semantic category judgment tasks in English in order to compare their degree of reliance on L1 phonology and orthography in L2 word recognition. The results showed that Japanese and Chinese L1 readers differed in using phonological and orthographic information in the L2 English task. The results suggest that reading for meaning in English is affected by prior literacy experiences in reading L1.
This study examined the role of trait guilt in discriminating between anthropophobic tendency and social anxiety. 212 University and technical college students (103 males and 109 females) were administered a questionnaire with a trait guilt scale, an anthropophobic tendency scale, and a social anxiety scale. Trait guilt showed a positive correlation with anthropophobic tendency when the influence of social anxiety was controlled. When the influence of Anthoropophobic tendency was controlled, trait guilt did not correlate as highly with social anxiety. These results were discussed related to cultural views of the self. Japanese culture is a “shame culture” because interdependent view of the self (seeing themselves as essentially connected with others) is dominant. People worry about appearances and how others see them, and are ashamed of their own deficiency or negative side, which leads to a sense of betrayal of others and thus guilt becomes a prominent trait.
Two experiments were designed to differentiate White's effect and an inverted White's effect. In White's effect, a gray target bordered by black stripes longer than white stripes appears darker than a target of the same physical luminance bordered by white stripes longer than black stripes when the luminance of the target area lies between the minimum and maximum luminance values of the inducing stripes. In an inverted White's effect, the direction of the effect is reversed when the target is either lighter or darker than both inducing stripes (Spehar, Clifford, & Agostini, 2002). Twenty undergraduates were asked to rate the brightness of a target area using a Munsell scale on the display. The results showed that both White's effect and an inverted White's effect were reproduced in any condition of Experiment 1 and 2. Experiment 1 showed that an inverted White's effect was affected by the shape of stripes, while White's effect was not. Experiment 2 showed that an inverted White's effect was affected by the length of target area, while White's effect was not. The results support Spehar et al. (2002) that White's effect and an inverted White's effect are not mediated by the same mechanism.
This study used the Relationship Attribution Measure (RAM), developed by Fincham & Bradbury (1992), with Japanese middle-aged couples, investigating the factor structure of the RAM, indices of reliability and concurrent validity with marital satisfaction. The confirmative factor analyses supported the two-factor structure for the Japanese version of the RAM, with similar trends as reported in Fincham & Bradbury (1992). The hypothesis model that the feeling love toward the partner affected withdrawal coping via marital attribution was tested using structural equation modeling. The results supported both the mediational role of marital attribution and the direct effect of marital love on withdrawal. Using pair data, the results suggested that wives' feeling love toward their husbands affected the husbands via negative attribution, but the husbands' feelings directly affected the wives' feelings. Thus the mediational model was supported only for wives, but not for husbands. Further research is needed to explore the relationship attribution in Japanese couples.
This study investigated women's stereotyping and evaluation processes for other women related to their own activated self-representations for categories of homemaker and career women. We predicted that when self-representation as a traditional woman was activated, participants would evaluate traditional women more positively and nontraditional women more negatively than when self-representation as a nontraditional woman was activated. When self-representation as a traditional woman was activated, participants would regard traditional women as more feminine and nontraditional women as more masculine. Fifty-three female college students were asked to imagine their future selves as a career woman or a homemaker and rate their difficulty in imagining this. Next, they were presented with a fictitious profile of a career woman or a homemaker and asked to rate this woman. The results supported the hypotheses for those who imagined their future selves clealy. The importance of the relative perspectives of women's prejudice toward other women was discussed.
The watercolor effect (Pinna, Brelstaff, & Spillmann, 2001) is a new color spreading phenomenon. Pinna et al. (2001) proposed that the watercolor effect is a new Gestalt factor because it determines figure-ground organization more strongly than classical Gestalt factors. We used achromatic watercolor patterns and varied the lightness of the background and two border lines to study the relationship between the color spreading effect and figure-ground organization. The results demonstrated (a) a bidirectional color spreading phenomenon when the background lightness was between the two border-lines' lightness, and that (b) some patterns elicit only a color spreading effect without organization of figure-ground, while others elicit only figure-ground organization without a color spreading effect.