Event-related potential (ERP) and reaction time (RT) were recorded to investigate the time course of processes involved in set switching. The cued set-switching paradigm required participants to switch stimulus task sets between male and female face-images memorized as targets prior to a trial block and response task sets between two stimulus-response mappings for each stimulus task. Replicating previous findings, an RT switch-cost was found when compared with set-repeat trials. The RT was also prolonged for a stimulus task requirement of memory comparison with two-face targets rather than one face. A similar prolongation with memory comparison was observed in P3b latency, which showed no switch effect. The switch effect was observed for the onset latency of stimulus-locked lateralized readiness potential (LRP), measured as an index of commencement of motor processes after response selection. The response-locked LRP indicated that the final process of motor execution itself was not modified by set switching. The processes producing the stimulus-locked LRP switch cost, associated with response task set, were discussed in terms of two hypotheses, exogenous reconfiguration and carryover.
This study explored the cognitive dimensions used by individuals in judging work performance based on the individual scale methodology of Hayashi, Ohashi, & Hirooka (1983). The participants were fifteen undergraduate students and nine workers. First, the participants described the characteristics of eight high performers and eight low performers whom they had worked with. Second, from these characteristics, they selected twenty characteristics that they considered as determinants in judging whether performers are superior or inferior. Third, using an individual scale consisting of the selected characteristics, they rated sixteen high performers and sixteen low performers. Factor analyses were conducted for each participant's ratings on the individual scale. The results suggested that three or four dimensions were generally used in judging performers, although there were individual differences in the number of dimensions used. Undergraduate students judged performers using more cognitive dimensions than workers did. The contents of the cognitive dimensions were relevant to technical skill, work attitude, cognitive ability, motivation, interpersonal competence, leadership, and personality. Undergraduate students used fewer cognitive ability dimensions and more personality dimensions than workers used.
This study examined the regulating factors of intention and experience with co-production related to local government administration. The result of a survey for 211 adults showed that their intention to participate in co-production was determined by “contact/information disclosure expectations” for local government employees, dissatisfaction with local government,communication with the neighborhood, and the number of organizational affiliations in the community. Of these factors, the number of organizational affiliations also determined experiences with co-production. Co-production was promoted by increased affiliative expectations for local government employees and ties in the community for action.
This study developed a scale measuring the spiritual vulgarity of the masses, based upon Ortega's “The revolt of the masses” (1957). A questionnaire was constructed with forty items, based on Ortega's descriptions of the characteristics of the spiritual vulgarity of the masses. The questionnaire was completed by 200 university students. The results of factor analysis of the vulgarity measurements yielded two subscales; autistic attitude and contumelious attitude. The two scales were correlated with other existing measures of social values, which was further evidence of validity.
This study investigated differences between cognitive processing of an individual's own face or name and another's face or name based on the interactive activation and competition (IAC) model of Burton, Bruce, & Johnston (1990). In Experiment 1, the self-face and faces of famous persons were used as target stimuli, and the self-face, self-name, faces or names of the famous persons were used as prime stimuli. In Experiment 2, self-name and names of famous persons were used as target stimuli. Participants were instructed to judge whether the target was male or female as quickly and accurately as possible. The results showed that reaction time for the targets was fastest when the prime was identical with the target in both experiments. This pattern was seen for both self and others. These results suggest that there is no difference between the cognitive processing of the self-face (name) and another's face (name). We proposed a modified framework for the role of face and name in the IAC model.
Eighty-nine participants performed a set of recognition judgment and confidence rating tasks twice. Half of the new items presented in the second task had already presented as old items to the participants in the first task. Analysis of the second task responses, showed a positive correlation between confidence and performance for the old items, and a negative correlation for the new items. In particular, a strong negative correlation was observed when items presented in the first task were presented as “new” in the second task. This negative correlation reflects “source monitoring error” where the participants falsely recognized the items in the first task as those presented in the second, because they were unaware of making source misattributions.
Weblogs are one of the most popular personal websites in Japan, where entries are made in journal style and displayed in reverse chronological order. This study examined the relationship between weblog authors' target audience (i.e., orientation) and the actual situations depicted in their weblogs by combining a questionnaire survey of the authors with an analysis of their weblog content data. Based on a questionnaire survey of 736 Japanese weblog authors, their target audience was divided into four clusters: (a)general public, (b)self, (c)self and offline friends, and (d)various others. To assess the actual situations depicted in their weblogs, the amount of happy and unhappy emotional expression in their writing and the frequency of interpersonal communication (comments, bookmarks, and trackbacks) were calculated from their log data. The results suggested that weblog authors wrote different types of content and used different types of communication depending on their audience, whereas the weblog content itself still showed the diary-like characteristic of personal daily-life records.
This study developed a Japanese version of the “Regret and Maximization Scale” in decision making, which was originally constructed by Schwartz, Ward, Monterosso, Lyubomirsky, White, and Lehman (2002). This scale measures assess the tendency to experience regret, and individual differences in the desire to maximize or to satisfy. In Study 1, the original version of the “Regret and Maximization Scale” was translated into Japanese and administered to 307 Japanese university students responded the scale. Factor analysis did not replicate the finding of Schwartz et al. (2002). In Study 2, we developed new items, and constructed a “Japanese Version of the Regret and Maximization Scale”, based on the interpretation of the factor analysis in Study 1. This new version of the scale was administered to 163 Japanese university students. The result of factor analysis and reliability analysis indicated that this “Japanese Version of the Regret and Maximization Scale” had a considerably high Cronbach's alpha and conceptual validity.