This study investigates the mechanism for determining “interestingness” in comprehending metaphorical expressions. In a pilot study, metaphorical expressions were collected from 56 participants. In Study 1, 17 participants were asked to classify these expressions into groups, which were categorized with respect to eight features (e.g., “not understandable”, “mundane”, and “strongly interesting”). In Study 2, 50 participants were asked to judge whether an expression was interesting or not, and the reaction time for their judgment was measured. The results showed that it took longer to judge interesting expressions than to judge non-interesting expressions. The difference in reaction times was interpreted as representing the cognitive process of discerning the meaning of an expression so that it was accessible and comprehensible. In other words, “interestingness” results from successfully resolving the meaning of an expression which was not immediately understandable, which involves some cognitive cost and reduces the stress of not understanding.
This study examined why some high achievers on the course final exam were unsuccessful on the proficiency exam in English. We hypothesized that the learning motives and learning behaviors (learning strategy, learning time) had different effects on the outcomes of the exams. First, the relation between the variables was investigated using structural equation modeling. Second, the learning behaviors of students who got good marks on both exams were compared with students who did well only on the course final exam. The results were as follows. (a)Learning motives influenced test performance via learning behaviors. (b)Content-attached motives influenced all variables concerning learning behaviors. (c)Content-detached motives influenced all variables concerning learning behaviors that were related only to the course final exam. (d)The students who got good marks on both exams performed the learning behaviors that were useful on the proficiency exam more frequently than the students who did well only on the course final exam.
This study investigated the trajectories and related factors of deviant behavior among students during their three years of junior high school. Data was analyzed from 344 students who completed a questionnaire survey every September. Nineteen categories of deviant behavior were examined, such as smoking, drinking alcohol, bullying, truancy, violence, and stealing. We determined behavioral trajectories from mild deviant behaviors to more serious ones. The data showed that more than half of the children who engaged in serious deviant behaviors in the third year followed a trajectory from mild deviant behaviors. The three factors of “deviant peers”, “attachment to parents” and “achievement” were related to the trajectory into more serious deviant behaviors.
This study classified environmentally-conscious behaviors of residents (n=335) along Lake Biwa as a common goods into personal and group behavioral intentions, and examined the determinants of these intentions. Identification with the community was a social identity, and differed from attachment to Lake Biwa, which was defined as topophilia. The results indicated that group behavior was affected by topophilia, while personal behavior was influenced by general attitudes about the environmental problems of the lake and evaluations of the cost for the behavior. Community identity had a significant effect on both personal and group behavior. Rational or emotional decision making processes resulted in two different types of environmentally-conscious behaviors.
The authors examined the effects of neighborhood collective efficacy and violence on adolescents' antisocial behavior tendencies by means of the dual mediation of socialization indices (i.e., social information-processing and self regulation) and routine activities. Collective efficacy and violence exposure were assessed by neighborhood “informal social control” and “social cohesion and trust” during the elementary and junior high school years, and the frequency of violence in the community during junior high and high school years. Normative beliefs about aggression, cognitive distortions, social rule appropriateness and self regulation were used to assess both the positive and negative indices of socialization. Routine activities were assessed by the experience in unstructured socializing activities. Antisocial tendencies were assessed by evaluations of the seriousness and past experience of delinquent behaviors. The results of structural equation modeling revealed that the effect of collective efficacy on antisocial tendencies was perfectly mediated by the socialization indices, whereas experienced violence was partly mediated by routine activities. Possible improvements of this dual mediation model were discussed.
This study examined the effects of individual reminiscence therapy in Japanese community-dwelling older adults without dementia. Participants (twenty three men and fifty seven women, mean age=82.6 yrs) were recruited from a community day-care center. They were randomly assigned to a reminiscence therapy group or a control group. Participants in the reminiscence group completed five or six weekly sessions (30-60 minutes) of individual reminiscence therapy. Participant's depression, life satisfaction, and self-esteem were assessed before and after the sessions. The results showed that the reminiscence group had a significant improvement in self-esteem. Thus individual reminiscence therapy can be a tool to maintain or improve self-esteem for Japanese older adults without dementia.
This study examines the relationship between four components of assertiveness (“open expression”, “control of emotion”, “consideration for others” and “self-direction”) and mental health. In Study 1, the analysis of interviews with thirteen high school students suggested that some components did not have a positive relationship with mental health. In Study 2, 176 high school students completed a questionnaire which included the UCLA isolation scale, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and a scale to measure the four components of assertiveness. The results showed that an excessively high score for “consideration for others” was associated with mental unhealthiness. This component probably has an optimum level to maintain mental health.
We demonstrated second-order retrospective revaluation with three cues (T1,T2, and C) and an outcome, in human contingency learning. Experimental task, PC-controlled video game in which participants were required to observe about the relations between firing missiles and the tank destruction, consisted of three training phases and two rating phases. Groups C+ and C− consisted of same first two training phases, CT+ (cues C and T with an outcome) and T1T2+ followed by C+, or C− training for Groups C+, C−, respectively. In rating phases, it is clearly demonstrated that the judgment of predictive value for the outcome of the T2 were higher by C+ training (second-order unovershadowing) and lowered by C− training (second-order backward blocking). The results for Groups RC+ and RC−, in which the orders of the first two training phase for Groups C+ and C−were interchanged, also showed second-order unovershadowing and second-order backward blocking. These results, the robustness of second-order retrospective revaluation against the order of the first training phases, can be explained by the extended comparator hypothesis and probabilistic contrast model. However, these results cannot be explained by traditional associative learning models.