The feeling experienced by people during an interaction when another person seemingly notices something about them that they would rather conceal is referred to as a sense of unwanted transparency. This study investigated the effects of the reasons for concealment on the verbal strategies for managing the sense of unwanted transparency. Undergraduate participants were asked to pretend to be graduate students and to interview students who were confederates of the experimenter. The experimental conditions were the different reasons given for concealing that they were really undergraduate students. After the confederate's question aroused the sense of unwanted transparency, participants were asked a contrived question that the confederate said would be easy for a graduate student to answer. The results showed that the verbal strategies for answering the question were affected by the reasons for concealment. However, the reasons for concealment did not affect directly the verbal content and nonverbal responses from the sense of unwanted transparency.
Based on Cantor and Land (1985)' s theory, I tested the criminal-motivation-effect hypothesis (bad economic conditions increase crime rates with a one-year time-lag) and the criminal-opportunity-effect hypothesis (good economic conditions increase crime rates in the same year). I used Japanese time-series data (1959-2005) of male parolees're-incarceration rates (as an indicator of crime rates) and annual average compensation rates (as an indicator of economic conditions). Based on Greenberg (2001), I used statistical models with cointegrating regression and error correction models. I found that the criminal-motivation-effect was significant as predicted. However, the trend was opposite to the prediction of the criminal-opportunity-effect hypothesis.
The Collage Impression Scoring Scale (CISS; Imamura, 2004) was used by 54 raters to score collages made by 24 alcoholics on admission to the hospital and at discharge. The CISS contains three factors: stability, expression and creativity. Comparisons using paired t-tests showed that the collages made at discharge had lower scores on the three CISS factors than the collages made on admission. The results for 11 alcoholics, who were followed for six months after discharge, showed that the scores for CISS factors for the abstinent group were lower than those for the relapsed drinking group. The abstinent group showed more anxiety than the relapsed drinking group. This result suggests that the abstinent alcoholics' anxieties were projected onto the collages because they were facing their internal problems more seriously. Thus the CISS was effective as a predictive index for alcoholics who maintain sobriety.
This study investigated retinal eccentricity effects in visual search. We introduced several scaling methods for the spatial resolution gradient (SRG) of the visual field induced by retinal properties. Each of stimuli in a single trial was presented at various eccentricities instantaneously. In M-scaling, the stimuli were gradually magnified as increasing eccentricity to compensate for the peripheral reduction in spatial resolution (Rovamo & Virsu, 1979). In Unscaling and D-scaling, the minimum and maximum sizes in M-scaling were used respectively regardless of eccentricity. D-scaling improved the visibility of peripheral stimuli while preserving the SRG. Using a search asymmetry for notched and complete squares, we arranged two tasks with different degrees of target discriminability. The search performance of both tasks became increasingly less efficient as the target appeared at more distant eccentricities in Unscaling, but M-scaling reduced the eccentricity effect. However, D-scaling produced efficient search for the salient target regardless of eccentricity, but held the eccentricity effect in the difficult search. On the SRG, the visual system seems to achieve a balance between simultaneous visual sampling over a wide field of vision and attentional prioritization of central vision.
We investigated whether visual cues are useful for judging haptic angles. Participants explored three-dimensional angles with a virtual haptic feedback device. For visual cues, we use a location cue, which synchronizes haptic exploration, and a space cue, which specifies the haptic space. In Experiment 1, angles were judged more correctly with both cues, but were overestimated with a location cue only. In Experiment 2, the visual cues emphasized depth, and overestimation with location cues occurred, but space cues had no influence. The results showed that (a)when both cues are presented, haptic angles are judged more correctly. (b)Location cues facilitate only motion information, and not depth information. (c)Haptic angles are apt to be overestimated when there is both haptic and visual information.
Research has reported that depressed individuals often experience intrusive thoughts during thought suppression. We examined whether the use of an attention focusing strategy was associated with the high frequency of intrusive thoughts in depressed individuals. Thirty-two participants were asked (a) to suppress their thoughts about negative targets, (b) to suppress the same thoughts and perform a memory task at the same time,and (c) to think about anything they like. The results showed that in the suppression with memory task condition, depressed individuals did not focus their attention on the memory task, and experienced more intrusive thoughts than non-depressed individuals. These results suggest that the non-use of an attention focusing strategy is associated with a high frequency of intrusive thoughts in depressed individuals. Implications for cognitive behavioral therapy for depressed individuals are discussed.
Recent research has suggested that two distinct psychological processes lead to ingroup favoritism in the minimal group paradigm (MGP) : the motivation to gain positive intergroup distinctiveness, and the motivation to maintain intragroup cooperation. In this study, we tested a hypothesis based on the adaptationist perspective, that different situational cues suggesting intergroup threat or intragroup interdependence would elicit ingroup favoritism via these distinct psychological processes. Ninety-one Japanese undergraduates participated in a minimal group experiment and performed a reward allocation task. The results supported our predictions. Participants did not show ingroup favoritism in the control condition, where only pure ingroup-outgroup categorization was made. However, they showed ingroup favoritism when they were exposed to intergroup threat in an ostensibly unrelated task prior to reward allocation (intergroup threat condition). Moreover, a positive correlation between ingroup favoritism and the motivation to maximize positive intergroup distinctiveness was observed only in the intergroup threat condition. Likewise, participants showed ingroup favoritism in the interdependence condition, where they were presented with cues suggesting interdependence within the ingroup. The significance and implications of the findings are discussed.
This study investigated self-worth as a mediator between socio-environmental experiences and depression. A sample of 255 fifth and sixth grade students completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-worth, depression, and socio-environmental experiences of social support and stressors. Data for both males and females showed a direct effect of “friend support” on depression. However,for males,but not females, self-worth also mediated the influence of “friend support” on depression.