This study investigated the perceptual and cognitive characteristics of metaphoric and onomatopoeic descriptions of physical pain. Ninety-eight Japanese pain descriptors were identified from previous pain studies and the World Wide Web. Four hundred and thirty-six Japanese undergraduates were asked to indicate for each descriptor: (a) body locations; (b) temporal (duration, interval repetition, and frequency), spatial (movement, depth, area, volume) and magnitude (strength) levels; and (c) ratings on seven semantic differential scales for cognitive evaluation. Correspondent analysis and principal component analysis indicated good correspondence between the perceptual and cognitive characteristics. Cluster analysis revealed that the 98 descriptors fall into eleven clusters that appear to be associated with different underlying metaphors for pain (e.g., the body as a container that experiences pain as the result of damage from an object or weapon). These results are discussed in terms of the relationship between the metaphors people use to describe their pain experience and the potential for bodily-basis conceptualization of pain.
This study examined the structure of anxiety associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza and pandemic influenza among lay people, using data from a survey of 1 016 adults in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. Confirmative factor analyses demonstrated that anxieties associated with infection and its effects are comprised of three factors: health threats, concern about economics, and anxiety about unknown risks. Anxieties related to management of influenza consisted of factors of distrust of administrative organizations, distrust of grocery stores, industry, and farmers, distrust of medical services, and lack of self-confidence in coping. The means of these factors significantly differed for age groups. Respondents aged 60-81 years were more anxious about infection and its effects, while those aged 18-39 years were more concerned about how to cope with the flu than the other age groups. The importance of using different communications considering the types of anxieties of the target audience was discussed.
Sperber and Wilson (1981) proposed that the speaker who uttered the expectation that is contradicted by irony is identified as the victim of the irony by the echoic mention of his/her utterance. We conducted two experiments to explore whether the victim of irony is identified by echoic mention. Experiment 1 examined the validity of this hypothesis using three conditions. In the Hearer (H) echo condition, the speaker who is echoed is the hearer of the potential irony. In the No-Hearer (NH) echo condition, the speaker who is echoed is not the hearer of the potential irony. The third condition is the no-echo condition. The result supported the hypothesis. In Experiment 2, we manipulated the H echo factor and the NH echo factor in 4 conditions. The results replicated Experiment 1, and showed that the NH is identified as the victim of irony more than the H. These results suggest that echoic mention and also status in the discourse are factors in the comprehension of irony.
This study examined the influences of online gaming on sociability and aggression in real life. It was hypothesized that the effects of online gaming would differ depending on the interaction style of the online-gamers. Online-gamers in Japan (n=1 477) were asked to respond to questionnaires that measured interaction style during online gaming, the effects of sociability and aggression, as well as social and individual orientation in real life. Factor analysis of the scores for interaction style extracted five factors. Covariance structure analysis indicated that sociable interactions such as “Broadening relations” and “Feeling of belonging” promoted sociability in real life. In addition, “Release from daily hassles” promoted sociability and decreased aggression. In contrast, non-sociable and aggressive interactions decreased sociability and increased aggression. The results also suggested that a social orientation in real life promoted sociable interactions during game playing, while an individual orientation promoted non-sociable and aggressive interactions. These results supported the hypotheses and suggested that online gaming resulted in positive outcomes for those who are socially, but negative outcomes for those who are not.
There is general agreement that repetition enhances various kinds of memory performance, but it remains unclear how repetition of identical items affects judgments of recency (JOR). The present study examined implicit repetition effects on JOR and the relationship between JOR and explicit judgments of frequency (JOF). Participants learned three lists consisting of 13 items, some of which were repeated from once to four times, and after learning each list, they judged how many times each list item was presented. Only after learning all three lists, participants could recognize the number of lists, and were asked to perform a temporal list discrimination task. The results showed that there was no significant effect of repetition on the accuracy of list discrimination but the response times for the most frequent items were significantly shorter. The results also showed a significant positive correlation between the accuracy of list discrimination and of JOF. These results suggest that higher frequency does not improve the accuracy of JOR, but intensifies the sense of easiness for the judgments, and that the ability to judge frequency contributes to JOR.
The present study developed a job-hunting anxiety scale and investigated the influence of job-hunting anxiety on coping, number of job-hunting applications, and satisfaction with job-hunting. Questionnaires were completed by 306 college students who had started job-hunting. Explorative factor analysis extracted five factors such as “appeal anxiety”, “support anxiety”, “activity persistence anxiety”, “test anxiety”, and “a lack of readiness anxiety”. Analysis of covariance structures indicated that (a) job-hunting anxiety was negatively related to problem-focused coping, the number of job-hunting applications, and the satisfaction with job-hunting, and (b) problem-focused coping was positively related to the number of job-hunting applications and the satisfaction with job-hunting. These results suggest that reduction of job-hunting anxiety and the use of problem-focused coping facilitated job-hunting.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between subtypes of social anxiety and distorted cognition of bodily sensations. The package of questionnaires including the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) was administered to 582 undergraduate students. To identify subtypes of social anxiety, cluster analysis was conducted using scores of the SPS and SIAS. Five clusters were identified and labeled as follows: Generalized type characterized by intense anxiety in most social situations, Non-anxious type characterized by low anxiety levels in social situations, Averaged type whose anxiety levels are averaged, Interaction anxiety type who feels anxiety mainly in social interaction situations, and Performance anxiety type who feels anxiety mainly in performance situations. Results of an ANOVA indicated that individuals with interaction type fear the negative evaluation from others regarding their bodily sensations whereas individuals with performance type overestimate the visibility of their bodily sensations to others. Differences in salient aspects of cognitive distortion among social anxiety subtypes may show necessity to select intervention techniques in consideration of subtypes.
This study examined the common and different factors of self-esteem, narcissism, and social phobia from the perspective of self-acceptance. Japanese undergraduates (N=267) completed a questionnaire that assessed narcissism, social phobic tendency, self-esteem, and self-acceptance. Three aspects of self-acceptance were measured: definite evaluation of self-features, self-acceptance for each features of the self, and subjective estimation of their own self-acceptance evaluations by others. The results showed that definite evaluation and self-acceptance evaluations were related positively to narcissism and self-esteem. However, the relation between narcissism and self-acceptance evaluations was not significant when controlled for the effect of definite evaluation of self-features. In addition, social phobic tendency was negatively related to definite evaluation and self-acceptance evaluations. These results implied that self-acceptance evaluation was an important factor that explains the common and different factors of self-esteem, narcissism, and social phobia.
Remembering some of the studied (target) items impairs subsequent remembrance of relevant (non-target) items. This phenomenon, retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF), occurs when non-targets actively compete with the retrieval of a target. Researchers suggest that suppression mechanisms reduce interference from relevant items to facilitate the retrieval of target items (Anderson, 2003). Competition-dependence is one of the properties that support the suppression hypothesis (Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork, 1994). In the present study, we manipulated the type of retrieval practice (normal, last-letter, or category-name) in order to vary the degree of competition between the target and the non-targets. For the high-scoring retrieval practice group, RIF occurred in the normal retrieval condition, but not in the last-letter or in the category-name conditions. For the low-scoring retrieval practice group, RIF did not occur in any of the conditions. These findings provide new evidence that the occurrence of RIF depends on the degree of competition between a target item and related non-target items during retrieval practice.