In order to examine the importance of fully representing graphic information items in graphic aids to facilitate comprehension of explanatory texts, we established and randomly assigned fifty university students into the following four groups: (a) participants who study the text without the aid, (b) participants who study the text with the aid, whose literal (key words) and graphic (arrows, boxes, etc.) information items are fully displayed, (c) participants who study the text with the aid, whose graphic information items are fully displayed but whose literal information items are partially displayed, and (d) participants who study the text with the aid, whose literal and graphic information items are partially displayed. The results of two kinds of comprehension tests “textbase and situation model” revealed that groups (b) and (c) outperformed groups (a) and (d). These findings suggest that graphic aids can facilitate students' text comprehension when graphic information items are fully displayed and literal information items are displayed either fully or partially; however, the aid cannot facilitate comprehension when both literal and graphic elements are displayed partially.
Two studies investigated whether observers perceive collective intention and responsibility of a task group when a group member (i.e., a member of a company's board) committed a corporate crime. In Study 1, undergraduate students read a scenario describing a criminal case, in which the degree to which the group (i.e., the company's board) was likely to be perceived as a coherent acting agent (i.e., “entitativity”) was manipulated. The results revealed that the perception of collective intentionality led to perceived responsibility of the group, and then to less favorable attitudes toward the company. However, there were no effects of entitativity on perceived intentionality and responsibility. With a refined experimental design, Study 2 showed that high group entitativity induced a high level of perceived intentionality and responsibility, particularly when the crime was directly relevant to the mission as a company (i.e., food manufacturing of a food company). Implications of these findings for other research areas such as business and law are discussed.
The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of smiling expression on cognitive and emotional processes during the introduction of negative mood and cognition by self-focused attention. The mechanisms underlying such effects were also examined, with reference to Interacting Cognitive Subsystems framework (Teasdale & Barnard, 1993). We induced the self-focused attention for all 33 participants but the timing and type of facial expressions manipulated differed among three conditions: control condition (required to move the facial muscles which are unrelated with smiling), buffer condition (required to “smile” before the self-focused attention), and attenuation condition (required to “smile” after the self-focused attention). The results showed that the negative mood was increased in the control group while it was decreased in two experimental groups. Furthermore, the positive mood was decreased in the control group, and increased in the buffer group. The contents of spontaneous thought during experiment were more positive among two “smile” conditions than control condition. These results suggest the importance of smiling before and during negative self-focused attention.
This study examined how people can handle the multiple audience problem of self-presentation (Fleming, 1994), when faced with two or more audiences while simultaneously wanting each audience to form or maintain a different impression of the presenter. In the laboratory, female participants had a brief conversation with either an opposite-sex (male) or a same-sex (female) confederate. The results showed that when no one else observed the conversation, the participants presented themselves as physically attractive to the opposite-sex more than to the same-sex audience. On the other hand, when another same-sex individual was observing the conversation, the participants presented themselves to the opposite-sex audience as less physically attractive but more socially desirable and friendly. The importance of this compensatory self-enhancement strategy in the multiple-audience situation is discussed.
Unsafe acts such as ignoring scheduled inspections can cause serious consequences. This study examines the effects of two reinforcing stimuli and four reinforcement schedules in maintaining sampling behavior in a virtual inspection task. Participants were asked to decide (yes or no) for each “product” whether it should be sampled for inspection. In Experiment 1, “yes” responses were reinforced with the message that defectives were found, once for every five times (FR), once for every one to nine (on average five) times (VR), only the first time (FTO), or never (None). The sampling behavior declined gradually in FR and VR and somewhat surprisingly more sharply in FTO than in None. In Experiment 2, the sampling behavior was effectively maintained when the participants were regularly provided with the evaluative feedback on their sampling behavior, although they were kept informed that defectives were not found. These results indicate the importance of utilizing reinforcing stimuli whose administration is independent of the outcome (e.g., defective or not) of the response (e.g., inspection) to be reinforced.
The effect of environmental context on performance on a word-fragment completion task, as an implicit memory task, was investigated by varying the retention interval between the encoding and retrieval sessions. In two experiments, 40 to-be-remembered items were presented incidentally to participants before they engaged in a word fragment task. The retention interval was one week in Experiment 1 and 10 minutes in Experiment 2. Except for an environmental context cue of odor, the environmental contexts of the encoding and retrieval sessions in both experiments were different. Reinstatement of the environmental context cue of odor facilitated performance in Experiment 1 only. This result suggests that when the effectiveness of item cues such as word fragments is reduced by a long retention interval, the environmental cues can facilitate performance in word-fragment task.
Retrieving information from memory can cause forgetting of related information in memory. This phenomenon is known as retrieval-induced forgetting. In this experiment, we examined age-related differences of inhibitory function in retrieval-induced forgetting by using a cued recall test. Following the cued recall test, a recognition test was conducted to examine the release of inhibition. In the cued recall test, the same amount of retrieval-induced forgetting effect was observed in younger and older people. This result suggests that both younger and older people have an inhibitory function and that this inhibitory function does not decline with age. In the recognition test, for younger people, retrieval-induced forgetting was not observed in both recognition accuracy and reaction time. However, for older people, retrieval-induced forgetting was observed in both accuracy and reaction time. These results suggest that inhibition in retrieval-induced forgetting is gradually released by item-specific cues and that the function of release inhibition may decline with age.
This study examines the relationship between four components of assertiveness (“open expression”, “control of emotion”, “consideration for others” and “self-direction”) and interpersonal behaviors on friends, interpersonal stress events, social anxiety. A questionnaire which included scales to measure the four components of assertiveness, activities with friend, considerate behavior for friends, interpersonal stress events and social anxiety was completed by 177 high school students. The results showed that “self-direction” had curvilinear relations with considerate behavior for friends, interpersonal stress events. An excessively high score for “self-direction” was associated with fewer considerate behavior and interpersonal stress events. An optimum score for “self-direction” was associated with more considerate behavior and interpersonal stress events.