In everyday situations, people round off multidigit numbers to what they consider an appropriate place. This study examined how many places people rounded to in a situation where they were required to choose between higher payments with long delays and lower payments with short delays. The payments were 4-digit numbers of yen and the ordinal sequences of the digits in the second, third, and fourth places were manipulated. In the compatible conditions, the ordinal direction in the second place of the low-order numbers was the same as that of highest-order numbers, for example 23×× and 48×× yen. In the incompatible conditions, the ordinal direction of the low-order digits was reversed, for example 28×× and 43×× yen. The results showed that rounding to a higher payment was more prevalent in the compatible conditions than in the incompatible conditions for the second place, but there was little effect in the third and fourth places. These results suggest that people compare the first two digits and make little reference to the third or later ones in rounding numbers.
This study investigated human recognition of human-body postures. We used computer graphics to make natural and impossible (unnatural) poses of three-dimensional human-body models, and made two-dimensional images of them from different viewpoints to test recognition performance in a serial matching task. We found that the recognition performance was better for the natural poses than the impossible poses. Recognition performance with different views was worse than for identical views, indicating a view-dependent performance in human-pose recognition. The view-dependency was less for the natural poses than for the impossible poses. Recognition of the inverted poses was more difficult than of the upright poses, but there was no effect of inversion on the advantage of the natural poses. The advantage in recognition of natural postures suggests that the biomechanical constraints are utilized in human body recognition.
A one-shot sequential prisoner's dilemma game with an in-group and an out-group member was conducted to test the group heuristic hypothesis for the in-group bias in minimal groups. Eighty-nine participants played the role of a second player and faced a fully cooperative first player. The results showed that in-group bias occurred only in the common knowledge condition in which the first player and the second player mutually knew each other's group membership, but not in the private knowledge condition in which the first player did not know the second player's group membership. These results provide support for the group heuristic hypothesis that in-group bias is an adaptive strategy in an assumed generalized exchange system to avoid a bad reputation as a defector.
The purpose of this study is twofold: (a) to examine how women adjust their time allocation when they become working mothers; and (b) to assess the effect of their adjustment on their daily emotional experience. Using a methodology based on the Day Reconstruction Method which is designed to reduce systematic bias, seven women responded to a questionnaire during parental leave (T1), within 1 month after returning to work (T2), and 3 months after returning to work (T3). The results revealed that most of the participants tended to utilize the time available to them for sleep and child care by decreasing housework and leisure. They experienced increased pressure in terms of time and felt more or equally energetic or intimate toward their families in both T2 and T3. The other participants, who had less time available for sleep or meals, experienced increased depression or tiredness.
The Initial Stage Career Exploration Inventory (ISCEI) was designed to assess career exploration among students in the early stage of making career decisions. The reliability, validity, and applicability of the ISCEI were investigated. In Study 1, responses on the ISCEI from student participants (n=294 : 69 men, 225 women) were factor analyzed. The results suggested a 3-factor structure consisting of “self-understanding,” “information gathering” and “learning from others.” Comparison between the ISCEI and self-improvement motive, vocational decisions, and career decision-making self-efficacy scales from the Career Exploration Survey (CES) indicated that the ISCEI had sufficient construct validity. Study 2 investigated the applicability of the ISCEI. The responses of student participants (n=859 : 451 men, 408 women) on the ISCEI indicated high “self-understanding,” neutral “information gathering,” and comparatively low “learning from others” scores, which were similarly related to the CES as in Study 1. These findings indicate that the ISCEI can be used as a tool for understanding career exploration among students in the initial stage of making career decision.
The present study developed an intervention program for self-complexity (SC; Linville, 1987), and examined the effects of this program on college students. Participants (N=40) were randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group. The intervention group received one session of psycho-education about SC, and kept daily records of self-aspects (social roles, interpersonal relationships, specific events/behaviors, traits, abilities, etc.) for one week. All participants were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire three times (pre, post, and follow-up). The questionnaire was comprised of items evaluating depression (The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), SC, positive self-complexity (P-SC), and negative self-complexity (N-SC). The results indicated that P-SC at the post-test was significantly increased and P-SC at the follow-up test was marginally increased in the intervention group, compared with the control group. Furthermore, structured equation modeling revealed that in the intervention group, high P-SC was related to low level of depressed mood after the program.
Cooperation in interdependent relationships is based on reciprocity in repeated interactions. However, cooperation in one-shot relationships cannot be explained by reciprocity. Frank, Gilovich, & Regan (1993) argued that cooperative behavior in one-shot interactions can be adaptive if cooperators displayed particular signals and people were able to distinguish cooperators from non-cooperators by decoding these signals. We argue that attractiveness and facial expressiveness are signals of cooperators. We conducted an experiment to examine if these signals influence the detection accuracy of cooperative behavior. Our participants (blind to the target's behavior in a Trust Game) viewed 30-seconds video-clips. Each video-clip was comprised of a cooperator and a non-cooperator in a Trust Game. The participants judged which one of the pair gave more money to the other participant. We found that participants were able to detect cooperators with a higher accuracy than chance. Furthermore, participants rated male non-cooperators as more attractive than male cooperators, and rated cooperators more expressive than non-cooperators. Further analyses showed that attractiveness inhibited detection accuracy while facial expressiveness fostered it.
This study describes the development and evaluation of the Nursery Teacher's Stress Scale (NTSS), which explores the relation between daily hassles at work and work-related stress. In Analysis 1, 29 items were chosen to construct the NTSS. Six factors were identified: I. Stress relating to child care; II. Stress from human relations at work; III. Stress from staff-parent relations; IV. Stress from lack of time; V. Stress relating to compensation; and VI. Stress from the difference between individual beliefs and school policy. All these factors had high degrees of internal consistency. In Analysis 2, the concurrent validity of the NTSS was examined. The results showed that the NTSS total scores were significantly correlated with the Job Stress Scale-Revised Version (job stressor scale, r=.68), the Pre-school Teacher-efficacy Scale (r=-.21), and the WHO-five Well-Being Index Japanese Version (r=-.40). Work stresses are affected by several daily hassles at work. The NTSS has acceptable reliability and validity, and can be used to improve nursery teacher's mental health.