This study elucidates processes of coping with work-family conflicts in double-income couples with children. Eight stories of dilemmas concerning work-family conflicts were constructed. Regular employees (N=20) were instructed to narrate the parts of the story in which they thought about how to cope with work-family conflict situations. The protocol analyses revealed the following: (a) most people prioritized their home over their jobs when their families encountered difficult situations, and (b) in cases where either spouse had a demanding or difficult job, there were gender differences with regard to the process of coping with work-family conflicts. The implications of these results are discussed.
Five-year-old children were presented two stories in which each of two characters made different numbers of Origami stars; the total number of stars was 16 in one story and 12 in the other. The children allocated rewards to the characters and justified their allocations. There were three conditions in which the total number of rewards was equal to (Middle-N), less than (Small-N), or more than (Large-N) the total number of stars in each story. Most children allocated the rewards equally to the two characters in the Small-N condition, while almost half of the children did not employ an equal allocation in the Middle-N and Large-N conditions. This suggests that in the Small-N condition, if an equity-like allocation were employed, children would feel sorry for the character given very few rewards, and therefore they distributed the rewards equally. On the other hand, in the Middle-N and Large-N conditions, even when one character received fewer rewards than the other, the children did not feel that the fewer rewards were too few.
Coherence theory in scene perception (Rensink, 2002) assumes the retention of volatile object representations on which attention is not focused. On the other hand, visual memory theory in scene perception (Hollingworth & Henderson, 2002) assumes that robust object representations are retained. In this study, we hypothesized that the difference between these two theories is derived from the difference of the experimental tasks that they are based on. In order to verify this hypothesis, we examined the properties of visual representation by using a change detection and memory task in a flicker paradigm. We measured the representations when participants were instructed to search for a change in a scene, and compared them with the intentional memory representations. The visual representations were retained in visual long-term memory even in the flicker paradigm, and were as robust as the intentional memory representations. However, the results indicate that the representations are unavailable for explicitly localizing a scene change, but are available for answering the recognition test. This suggests that coherence theory and visual memory theory are compatible.
This research examined the effect of prison population densities (PPD) on inmate-inmate prison violence rates (PVR) in Japan using one-year-interval time-series data (1972-2006). Cointegration regressions revealed a long-run equilibrium relationship between PPD and PVR. PPD had a significant and increasing effect on PVR in the long-term. Error correction models showed that in the short-term, the effect of PPD was significant and positive on PVR, even after controlling for the effects of the proportions of males, age younger than 30 years, less than one-year incarceration, and prisoner / staff ratio. The results were discussed in regard to (a) differences between Japanese prisons and prisons in the United States, and (b) methodological problems found in previous research.
To investigate hemispheric differences of semantic activation, event-related potentials were recorded when two pairs of words were successively presented with a SOA of 200 ms or 800 ms. Each word pair was simultaneously exposed to the left (LVF) and right (RVF) visual fields. Participants were required to attend one visual field and make a judgment whether the words (prime-target) presented at the attended visual field were semantically related or not. A priming effect on reaction time was observed for RVF targets with SOA 200 ms, and for both LVF and RVF targets with SOA 800 ms, consistent with the idea that semantic activation is faster in the left than the right hemisphere. In contrast, the priming effect on N400 amplitude was not affected by the SOA and visual field, and the onset latency was shorter for RVF than for LVF targets, irrespective of SOA. The N400 priming effects were interpreted to be associated with task-induced semantic processing.
This research focused on (a) embarrassment at the time of condom purchase or use, and (b) stages of change (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1983) as psychological factors related to the use of condoms. A written questionnaire was completed by 376 university students. For condom purchases, ANOVAs revealed that scores for “intent of behavior” increased as participants moved from the “precontemplation” stage to the “action” stage. The scores for embarrassment, and many factors of embarrassment, were lower in the “action” stage than in the other stages. However, the patterns of condom use scores were unclear. These results indicate that with regard to condom purchases, persons who are in the “preparation” or earlier stages (i.e., persons who are not purchasing condoms) are particularly susceptible to embarrassment.
This study examines how children's social power cognitions about themselves and the collective efficacy of their classrooms affect their selection and use of influence tactics toward their classmates. The effect of daily usage of influence tactics by children on agents' perception of social power is also examined. The results of linear regression analysis indicate that children who see themselves as friendly holders of power deriving from the perception of affable friendships use both collaborative and coercive influence tactics. While the use of collaborative tactics encourages agents' friendly social power cognition, the use of coercive tactics only reinforces their coercive power cognition. In addition, it is suggested that the effect of social power over agents' use of influence tactics is moderated by the collective efficacy of their classroom.
Auditory hallucinations (AH), a psychopathological phenomenon where a person hears non-existent voices, commonly occur in schizophrenia. Recent cognitive and neuroscience studies suggest that AH may be the misattribution of one's own inner speech. Self-monitoring through neural feedback mechanisms allows individuals to distinguish between their own and others' actions, including speech. AH maybe the results of an individual's inability to discriminate between their own speech and that of others. The present paper tries to integrate the three theories (behavioral, brain, and model approaches) proposed to explain the self-monitoring hypothesis of AH. In addition, we investigate the lateralization of self-other representation in the brain, as suggested by recent studies, and discuss future research directions.