This study examined the ordinal agreement and order conservation hypotheses of Imai (1986), which predict that a pattern is considered good if it is invariant for more transformations. Undergraduates (N=144) made goodness ratings for 21-dot compound patterns. The patterns consisted of 8-dot and 13-dot figures with solid and/or open circles. Both the figures and the patterns were invariant under the transformations of rotation and reflection, forming cyclic (C1, C2, C4) or dihedral (D1, D2, D4) groups. The results showed no significant differences among the four combinations of solid and open circles. When the 13-dot C1 figure was overlapped with the 8-dot figures, the C1 compound patterns were rated the poorest. The goodness ratings of the Cn and Dn patterns were the increasing functions of the number of transformations, which supports the ordinal agreement hypothesis. When alternated with the 8-dot D4 figure, the 8-dot C1 figure superimposed with the 13-dot figures reduced the goodness ratings of the C1 patterns, but the order of the ratings was conserved, which supports the order conservation hypothesis.
This study examined the effect of humor coping with interpersonal stress on the relationship between cynical hostility, conscious defensiveness, and depression. University students (N=375; 214 men and 161 women) participated in a questionnaire survey. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses by sex showed that humor coping with interpersonal stress alleviated the detrimental influence of cynical hostility on depression only for men with low conscious defensiveness. For women, humor coping with interpersonal stress played a role in alleviating depression independently of hostility and conscious defensiveness. These findings suggest that there are differences between men and women in the role of humor coping with interpersonal stress in affecting depression. Methodological limitations of the present study are discussed, along with possible improvements for future studies.
Switching to a dominant task incurs larger costs than switching to a non-dominant task. This study investigated whether this cost asymmetry derives from the inhibition of the dominant task rule that occurred during the previous trial. Participants were presented with a five-letter array consisting of “左” (left) and “右” (right), “右右右右右”, “左左左左左”, “右右左右右”, and “左左右左左”, and asked to respond to the central target letter after being informed about the task rule with a pre-cue. The rule was switched between dominant (left-hand to “左”, right-hand to “右”) and non-dominant tasks (right-hand to “左”, left-hand to “右”) every two trials. Reaction times revealed the asymmetrical switch cost and the effect of target-flanker congruency. Stimulus-locked lateralized readiness potentials showed that the dominant task rule was inhibited during the non-dominant task, whereas this inhibition was not carried over to the dominant task trial.
This study examined how Japanese preschoolers infer the meaning of a novel adjective and noun. The participants, 41 three-year-olds and 44 four-year-olds, were introduced to a novel adjective or a novel noun in association with a familiar object. They were then shown five test objects and asked to choose all the objects to which they could apply the novel word. The results indicated that although both three- and four-year-olds tried to extend adjectives using a different principle from nouns, only four-year-olds successfully extended a novel adjective based on the sameness of property. Three-year-olds seem to have trouble extracting a common property across objects especially when those objects belong to different basic-level categories.
In this article, we propose a non-hierarchical clustering method that can consider the relations between several variables and determine the optimal number of clusters. By utilizing the Mahalanobis distance instead of the Euclidean distance, which is calculated in k-means, we could consider the relations between several variables and obtain better groupings. Assuming that the data are samples from a mixture normal distribution, we could also calculate Akaike's information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) to determine the number of clusters. We used simulation and real data examples to confirm the usefulness of the proposed method. This method allows determination of the optimal number of clusters, considering the relations between several variables.
Previous research has shown that implicitly measured shyness predicted spontaneous shy behavior in social situations, while explicit self-ratings of shyness predicted controlled shy behavior (Asendorpf, Banse, & Mücke, 2002). The present study examined whether these same results would be replicated in Japan. In Study 1, college students (N=47) completed a shyness Implicit Association Test (IAT for shyness) and explicit self-ratings of shyness. In Study 2, friends (N=69) of the Study 1 participants rated those participants on various personality scales. Covariance structure analysis, revealed that only implicit self-concept measured by the shyness IAT predicted other-rated high interpersonal tension (spontaneous shy behavior). Also, only explicit self-concept predicted other-rated low praise seeking (controlled shy behavior). The results of this study are similar to the findings of the previous research.
This study examined whether false memories, as revealed by the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, can arise from indirect stereotype associations, as proposed by Lenton, Blair, and Hastie (2001). We found significant indications of stereotype-evoked false memories. The participants in our experiment reported that they were unaware of the gender theme of the studied list, suggesting that the false memories were due to implicit associative processes. Although we could not replicate an increase in the false recognition of stereotypically gender-congruent occupations, we detected a gender-congruent effect partially by the analyses of the “Remember” responses and the participants' egalitarian attitudes against the gender role. Moreover, analyses of the “Know” responses indicated that participants' attitudes toward gender roles potentially moderate the degree that they form occupational gender stereotypes. Implications of the results for basic/applied research on the interactions between stereotype and memory are discussed.
Elderly people have lower ability for recognizing facial emotions than younger people. Previous studies showed that older adults had difficulty in recognizing anger, sadness and fear, but there were no consistent results for happiness, surprise and disgust. Most of these studies used a small number of stimuli, and tabulated the number of correct responses for facial expressions. These characteristics of the task might be the source of the discrepancy in the findings. The present study used a task which measures participants' discrimination thresholds for six basic emotions using psychophysical measurement methods. The results showed that the thresholds for elderly participants (74.8±6.5 yrs) were significantly higher than for younger participants (20.1±1.6 yrs) for sadness, surprise, anger, disgust and fear. There was no significant difference for happiness. Since the task that we developed was sufficiently sensitive, it is a useful tool for assessing individuals' ability to perceive emotion.
Research has shown that personality traits have strong predictive validity for economic variables (e.g., income, work attainment) and epidemiological variables (e.g., longevity, physical health), as well as for psychological variables such as problem behaviors, and mental disorders. Importantly, personality traits are predictive even after controlling for socioeconomic status and cognitive abilities. The authors believe that current personality research in Japan almost completely overlooks this perspective. In this article, the authors review these new trends in personality psychological research. They propose a model for research involving A (accurate assessments), B (big samples), C (controlling for covariates and confounders), D (developmental trajectories), and E (economic and epidemiological variables). They outline three future directions to embody personality psychology for prediction, prevention, public wealth, and population health.