Mechanisms of Dohsa-hou (a holistic psycho-rehabilitation method) were investigated by comparing the effects of attention to body sensation and muscular relaxation. Participants were randomly divided into the following three groups. The Dohsa+Attention (D+A) group practiced Dohsa-hou by focusing attention on somatic sensations. The Dohsa (D) group practiced Dohsa without focusing attention. The control group did not practice Dohsa. All the participants were assessed using the Decentering Scale, the Self-Acceptance Scale, and the Depression and Anxiety Mood Scale before and after the intervention. The results indicated that both the D+A and D groups had increased self-acceptance and decreased anxiety scores. However, in comparison to the control group, the decentering score increased in the D+A group (p<.05), whereas the Depression score decreased in the D group (p<.05). These findings suggest that attention to body sensations is effective in increasing decentering, whereas muscular relaxation is effective in decreasing depressed mood.
The purposes of this study were to develop and validate the Empathic-Affective Response Scale, and to examine the relationship of empathic-affective responses with prosocial behaviors and aggressive behaviors. Undergraduate students (N = 443) participated in a questionnaire study. The results of factor analysis indicated that empathic-affective responses involved three factors: (a) sharing and good feeling toward others' positive affect, (b) sharing of negative affect and (c) sympathy toward others' negative affect. Correlations with other empathy-related scales and internal consistency suggested that this scale has satisfactory validity and reliability. Cluster analysis revealed that participants were clustered into four groups: high-empathic group, low-empathic group, insufficient positive affective response group and insufficient negative affective response group. Additional analysis showed the frequency of prosocial behaviors in high-empathic group was highest in all groups. On the other hand, the frequency of aggressive behaviors in both insufficient positive affective response group and low-empathic group were higher than others' groups. The results indicated that empathic-affective responses toward positive affect are also very important to predict prosocial behaviors and aggressive behaviors.
This paper presents a new model of category judgment. The model hypothesizes that, when more attention is focused on a category, the psychological range of the category gets narrower (category-focusing hypothesis). We explain this hypothesis by using the metaphor of a “mental-box” model: the more attention that is focused on a mental box (i.e., a category set), the smaller the size of the box becomes (i.e., a cardinal number of the category set). The hypothesis was tested in an experiment (N = 40), where the focus of attention on prescribed verbal categories was manipulated. The obtained data gave support to the hypothesis: category-focusing effects were found in three experimental tasks (regarding the category of “food”, “height”, and “income”). The validity of the hypothesis was discussed based on the results.
Three experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of feature similarity and discrimination category in a flanker task. Gabor patches were used as target and distractor stimuli for each experiment. In the first experiment, the target turned to minus or plus 45 deg from the vertical, whereas the orientation of the distractors changed between minus and plus 45 deg by 15 deg. For the second experiment, three conditions of the target orientation were used: minus or plus 45 deg, minus 22.5 deg or plus 67.5 deg, and 0 deg or plus 90 deg. The orientation of the distractors changed between the orientations of the two targets by 22.5 deg. In the third experiment, the target turned to minus or plus 10 deg from the vertical, whereas the orientation of the distractors changed between minus and plus 40 deg by 5 deg. The results showed that responses to the target were affected by the difference between the orientations of the target and the distractors as well as the category of their orientations.
The present study examined Japanese university students' processing time for English subject and object relative clauses in relation to their English listening proficiency. In Analysis 1, the relation between English listening proficiency and reading span test scores was analyzed. The results showed that the high and low listening comprehension groups' reading span test scores do not differ. Analysis 2 investigated English listening proficiency and processing time for sentences with subject and object relative clauses. The results showed that reading the relative clause ending and the main verb section of a sentence with an object relative clause (such as “attacked” and “admitted” in the sentence “The reporter that the senator attacked admitted the error”) takes less time for learners with high English listening scores than for learners with low English listening scores. In Analysis 3, English listening proficiency and comprehension accuracy for sentences with subject and object relative clauses were examined. The results showed no significant difference in comprehension accuracy between the high and low listening-comprehension groups. These results indicate that processing time for English relative clauses is related to the cognitive processes involved in listening comprehension, which requires immediate processing of syntactically complex audio information.
This study explores the influence of self-processes involving grandparenthood on the frequency of contact with grandchildren and grandparent satisfaction, and the influence of these self-processes, frequency of contact, and grandparent satisfaction on subjective well-being. A mail survey was conducted with randomly selected people between 65-74 years of age (N = 226) living in a city. The results showed that grandparent centrality and grandparent identity meanings influenced the frequency of contact with grandchildren. Grandparent-identity meanings influenced grandparent satisfaction. Additionally, grandparent-identity meanings and grandparent satisfaction influenced subjective well-being. The findings suggest that only grandparent-identity meanings in self-processes of grandparenthood influenced grandparent satisfaction and subjective well-being.
Readers may have various experiences while reading a narrative, such as imagining the world described in the narrative, empathizing with the protagonist, and thinking about the author of the narrative or the real world. Referred to as “reader response” in literary theory, these experiences are important topics in the study of a reader's interactions with a literary text. To investigate differences among individuals in the degree of openness to these experiences during narrative comprehension, we translated the Literary Response Questionnaire (LRQ) developed by Miall and Kuiken (1995) and selected 37 items from the original scale to develop a Japanese version (LRQ-J). This survey was administered to 497 undergraduate students. The results showed that all subscales of the LRQ-J had internal consistency. Respondents' scores showed significant correlations with fantasy proneness, imaginative involvement, imagery vividness, and ego-resiliency. The results suggest that the LRQ-J has sufficient reliability and validity. The psychological characteristics of experiences assessed by the LRQ-J are discussed.
This study investigated how relational efficacy affects functions of safe haven and secure base in romantic relationships and same-sex friendships. Relational efficacy, which is a shared or intersubjective efficacy of relationship partners, refers to a pair's belief that they can mutually coordinate and integrate their resources to prevent and resolve any problems. Participants were 97 dating heterosexual couples and 119 same-sex friendships. Multilevel structural equation modeling suggested that relational efficacy promotes the safe haven function and the secure base function in romantic relationships and same-sex friendships, controlled for sex, relationship longevity, irreplaceability, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance. Additionally, the effects of relational efficacy on the safe haven function and the secure base function in romantic relationships are stronger than in same-sex friendships. These results are discussed in terms of the association between intersubjective processes in close relationships and individuals' hedonic/eudaimonic well-being.
Previous studies using the Baumtest (Tree-Drawing Test) reported that tree drawings by elderly people rarely show trees with crowns, in comparison to trees drawn by younger people. This difference may be an index of developmental changes resulting from aging. However, since these studies instructed participants to draw a single fruit-bearing tree, the kinds of trees that elderly people visualized may have been different from those visualized by younger people. In this study, 111 mentally healthy people over 65 years of age were divided into two groups: Group 1 (N = 61, mean age = 72.7 years) was asked to draw a single tree and Group 2 (N = 50, mean age = 73.4 years) was asked to draw a single fruit-bearing tree. The results show that the frequency of trees with crowns drawn by Group 1 was lower than Group 2 (χ2(1)=21.04, p<.01). This suggests that the decrease in trees with crowns drawn by elderly people resulted from differences in instructions, in addition to possible developmental changes.
This study examined the validity of the indices of Hatta's Doll Location Test (DLT) to represent the interpersonal structure of juvenile delinquents. Japanese juvenile delinquents (N = 215) in detention were asked to fill out the Differential Loneliness Scale and to represent their typical interpersonal relations using the DLT. The results showed that the presence, the order, the distance, and the height of the figures were related to loneliness. However, the direction of placing the figures did not show the expected relationship with loneliness. Furthermore, the relationships between the indices and loneliness were different according to the type of person represented. The results suggest that distance was valid as an index of cohesion, although height could discriminate the intimate group from the others.