This study examined the effect of working memory on learning from texts. In Experiment 1, participants preformed a word clustering task involving key words from an explanatory text (pretest), and then read the text, which was presented sentence-by-sentence. Next, they performed a second clustering task (post-test), a problem solving task, and a reading span test (RST). The results suggested that the individual differences of the RST scores correlated with the scores for problem solving. In Experiment 2, the results suggested that the individual differences of the RST scores influenced the clustering performance at the level of the situation model when the text was presented all together. Moreover, the result of multiple dimension scaling suggested that the situation models of high-span readers reflected the structure of the text more than those of low-span readers. These results indicate that readers with high reading span scores construct coherent situation models of texts and make use of them for learning from texts.
This paper examines the patterns among married couples of usage of support-gaining strategies for receiving support from the spouse, and their influence on the support received and marital quality. Questionnaire data from 452 Taiwanese married couples dealt with three types of support: emotional, substantial, and advice. The six types of support-gaining strategies were threat, other exploitation, roundabout appeal, reward, entreaty, and reasoning. The two aspects of marital quality measured were satisfaction and regret. The results showed that the patterns of usage of support-gaining strategies by couples could be classified as “mutual multiplicity,” “husband-reasoning and wife-multiplicity,” “mutual reasoning,” and “mutual delicacy.” The degrees of received support and marital quality varied by sex and patterns of strategy use. Husbands received more substantial support and reported better satisfaction, but received less emotional support and advice. Couples classified as “mutual delicacy” received the highest support and had the best marital quality. In contrast, couples classified as “mutual multiplicity” received the lowest support and had the worst marital quality. The findings suggest that using appropriate support-gaining strategies is important to marital life.
Research has demonstrated the environmentally conscious behavior of parents and caregivers acts as a social influence that produces environmentally conscious behavior in their children, and also has an effect on their children's cost-benefit evaluations and social norm evaluations. The present study examined the personal norms for producing continuous environmentally conscious behavior, and two social norms that form the personal norms, which are categorized as descriptive and subjective norms. The results of this study suggest that the subjective norm formed the personal norm. Furthermore, the parents' normative social influences affected the personal norm through the subjective norm, and the parents' behavior affected their children's environmentally conscious behavior through the descriptive norm.
This study tests the validity of hypotheses about the interpretations of Rorschach father/ mother cards by having subjects select the cards. The results showed that regardless of the subject's gender, Card IV is far more often selected as the father card. However Card VII is not more often chosen as the mother card, if anything, the Color Cards are usually selected. The result of a correspondence analysis suggest that a certain combination of father and mother cards is more often selected. When the frequency of card selection is applied to the cluster of cards obtained in the study of Fukui et al (2008), the mother card is predominantly selected from the feminine/maternity-cards cluster. However, the father card was selected equally often from three clusters, indicating variation of the father figure. The results indicate the predominance of Card IV as the father card, and also confirm the lack of individuality with Card VII. Therefore, Card IV fulfills prerequisites for the father card hypothesis, while Card VII does not meet the criteria. The results do not support the validity of the hypothesis about the mother card interpretation.
A. T. Beck's cognitive model of depression posits that depressogenic schemata contribute to developing depression after stressful events occur. However, depressogenic schemata are considered to enhance the perception per se of the occurrence of stressful events. In particular, depressogenic schemata are considered to make objectively nonnegative (neutral) events stressful (i.e., generate subjective stress) through arbitrary inference, thereby contributing to developing depression. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that interpersonal depressogenic schemata generate subjective interpersonal stress, thereby contributing to developing depressive symptoms. This study employed a cross-sectional design with college students (N = 199; 152 females). The results of path analyses supported the hypothesis. Implications for A. T. Beck's model and C. Hammen's stress generation model were discussed.
The present study examined the recognition of numerical stimuli briefly presented in the peripheral and the central (foveal) visual fields of children with autism. The participants were 5 children with high-functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and 10 typically developing (TD) children of similar chronological age. The stimuli were number strings presented on a personal computer screen for 160 msec in the position of the fixation point (foveal condition) or in the peripheral visual field (retinal eccentricity of 16°) in one of the eight radial positions selected randomly (peripheral condition). The participants' task was to report the number of stimuli. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the mean response times between the TD and ASD groups. However, the mean percentage of correct answers in the ASD group was significantly higher than in the TD group for the peripheral condition. These results suggest that the effective visual field of the ASD group is expanded compared with the TD group. We discussed the relationships between perceptual characteristics and cognitive processes particular to ASD children.
This paper compared the specificity of recollections of autobiographical memories where musical cues for events were varied. We used music which was popular in the past as cues which were related to a larger number of past individual events (frequent events cues) and music which was typically only sung at graduation ceremonies as cues which were related to a smaller number of events (rare events cues). In the instructed retrieval condition, participants were told to listen to the music and to recall past events, whereas in incidental retrieval condition, the instruction was only to listen to the music. Then participants were asked to describe what they recalled while hearing the music. When frequent events musical cues were played, the specificities of the recalled events were higher in the instructed retrieval condition than in the incidental retrieval condition. In contrast, when rare events musical cues were played, there were no differences in the specificities of the recalled events.
The present study examined the relation between the manner of perceptual organization and pattern goodness. We presented regularly arranged dot patterns (Experiment 1) and randomly arranged dot patterns (Experiment 2). In both experiments, the participants were asked to evaluate the goodness of the patterns using a 7-point scale and to encircle the dots in the manner that the participants had organized them. The results for both experiments showed that patterns organized with fewer groups were rated as better than patterns organized with more groups, despite having the same structure. These results indicate that the variation in pattern goodness which is not explained by the physical structure of the pattern is explained by the manner of perceptual organization used by the observer.
The study of the metaphor is interdisciplinary and focuses mostly on three points in cognitive psychology: (a) the cognition of metaphoricity, (b) metaphor comprehension processes, and (c) the reason why one concept is represented by another concept as a metaphor. This article reviews the history of research on the metaphor from these three perspectives. Most recent studies support the following viewpoints. Metaphor comprehension is as quick and automatic as literal comprehension. Metaphor comprehension entails the processes of comparison and abstraction. The reason why one concept is compared with another concept is strongly related with the motivation process of combination between different concepts such as embodied cognition.