We examined the accumulative effects and long-term persistence of subliminal mere exposure. An accumulative exposure condition (100 exposures distributed over five days) and a massed exposure condition (100 exposures in one day) were used in a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT), with assessments of likability from Time 1 (just after) to Time 6 (after three months). First, a single stimulus was shown subliminally for a total of 100 times. The results indicated that mere exposure effects occurred equally often at Time 1. However, after Time 2, likability gradually decreased under the massed exposure condition, while it did not decrease under the accumulative exposure condition until Time 6. Second, in order to investigate the effect of multiple exposure, five stimuli belonging to a common category were shown 20 times each, for a total of 100 times. An ANOVA suggested that massed exposure had an instantaneous effect on likability, whereas accumulative exposure had a long-term persistence effect. Also, multiple exposures strengthened the mere exposure effect.
Children's macroprocessing skills for comprehension of expository text were investigated by focusing on the additive effect of such skills on the readers' working memory (WM) capacity. In Experiment 1, 181 fourth and fifth graders read topic explicit and implicit expository texts. After reading each text, they were asked to recall the topic and other information in the text. In Experiment 2, 617 fourth and fifth graders were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: instructional conditions of either being encouraged to grasp the topic of the text or being encouraged to remember details of the text, or a control condition. Then they read and recalled expository texts. As a whole, children with high scores for macroprocessing skills significantly outperformed children with low scores on the recall tasks. These effects remained after controlling for WM capacity, suggesting that the acquisition of macroprocessing skills may benefit children's reading over and above the effect of differences in their WM capacity. However, the results also indicated that the effects of these skills depended on the text and instructional conditions.
This study examined the relationship between the level and stability of self-esteem and behavior engaged in to recover from decreased self-esteem. A preparatory study (N=137) investigated recovery behaviors for decreased self-esteem. The main study investigated the factor structure of recovery behavior (N=518) and its relationship with self-esteem (N=96). The results showed that four types of behaviors were used for recovery from decreased self-esteem: disclosure, seeking acceptance, engaging in a pastime, and introspection. People with high and stable self-esteem (HS) engaged in disclosure and a pastime; people with high and unstable self-esteem (HU) engaged in a pastime. People with low and stable self-esteem (LS) did not do anything; people with low and unstable self-esteem (LU) engaged in disclosure and seeking acceptance. Finally, the characteristics of each group and issue of the scale were discussed.
This research investigated what factors play a role in a listener's feelings evoked by irony. In Experiment 1, participants imagined their best friend or an acquaintance as the speaker, and rated how they felt when apparent ironical utterances were made. The effects of the listener's empathy and conversational indirectness were examined. In Experiment 2, participants rated how they felt when apparent ironical utterances or literal utterances were made. The effects of the listeners' self-esteem and attitude toward humor were examined. The results showed that cognitions about joking relationships and the listener's attitude toward humor played an important role in the listener's feelings evoked by irony, whereas the listeners' self-esteem and their interpretation of conversational indirectness affected their perception of irony. Irony evoked positive feelings when the joke or the humor of irony was evaluated as positive politeness by the listener due to the listener's attitude toward humor or a joking relationship with the speaker.
In many cases, aptitude tests used in the hiring process fail to connect the measurement scale with the emotional type of the person desired by an employer. This experimental study introduced a new measuring method, in which the measurement scale could be adjusted according to the type of person an employer is seeking. Then the effectiveness of this method was verified by comparing the results of an aptitude test utilizing the method and the results of the typical hiring process carried out by the new method in hiring.
Humans can recognize a complex natural scene even when it appears only briefly. The rapid recognition of natural scenes is accomplished by parallel processing of information based on multiple spatial frequencies and integration of this information. Previous studies have revealed the time course of integration of frequency-based information. However, it is still unclear how frequency-based information is integrated. There are two possible levels for the integration: One involves spatial integration of images and constructs a unified image, and the other entails semantic integration associated with the scene context level irrespective of spatial arrangements. We investigated the categorization accuracy of the low+high-pass images, in which a left-right mirror reversed low-pass image was superimposed on a nonreversed high-pass image or vice versa. In this context, the low+high-pass images were semantically integrable but spatially incongruent. The results indicated that accuracy of the low+high-pass images did not exceed the expected accuracy level estimated from separate presentations. This finding suggests that frequency-based information can be integrated spatially.
The purpose of this study was to verify a model of motivation for altruistic behavior toward the young generation in elderly people. Erikson's developmental task theory and concept of “generativity” was used as the basis of a hypothetic model. We assumed that memory about parents in childhood has a direct impact on motivation for participating in child-support, and has an indirect impact through generativity and the view of child rearing. Also, the view of child rearing has an indirect impact through generativity. Data was analyzed from questionnaires completed by 236 elderly people (M = 68.35 years old, SD = 7.64 years). Structural equation modeling showed that the effect of memory about parents and the view of child rearing on the motivation for participating in child-support were mediated by generativity. These results suggested that generativity is a key concept in explaining the motivation for altruistic behavior toward the young generation in elderly people.
We confirmed an increase in false recognition for visual short-term memory of the elderly using a recognition task, which was affected by the test method. Old/new judgments and a forced-choice task were used as the recognition tasks and the hit rate, false alarm rate, and d' for each task were compared across age groups. The results indicated that there were significant differences in the hit rate, false alarm rate and d' across age groups for both recognition tasks. However, in the forced-choice task, where judgments could depend on familiarity, the false alarm rate among the elderly group decreased and differences in d' across age groups became smaller. The elderly could input sight information, but had more difficulty to input the geometric details. We concluded that the false alarm rate for short term visual memory increases in the elderly, but it decreases when recognition judgments can be made based on familiarity.