Hypothetical stories designed to arouse feelings of happiness, sadness, or anger were presented to Japanese (n = 310) and Koreans (n = 286) university students. They were asked to rate the intensity of the emotion experienced, and to select the corresponding facial expression to display in an individual situation and in a social situation. Analyses of covariance were conducted on the rating scores of facial expression using the intensities of emotion as the covariance, except for happiness where the within-class regression coefficients were not homogeneous. The results showed that Japanese and Koreans shared the emotional display rules about the expressions of emotions in individual situations more than in social situations. Japanese thought that they should suppress emotions more than Koreans did. Moreover, the differences in facial expressions between Japanese and Koreans were greater in the individual situations than in the social situations.
The effect on likability of multiple subliminal exposures to the same person was investigated. Past studies on the mere exposure effect indicated a correlation between the frequency of repeated exposure to the same stimulus and likability. We proposed that exposure to various stimuli of the same person would have a stronger effect on likability. Participants were subliminally exposed to photographs of a person's face taken from seven angles (multi-angle-exposure) three times each (Experiment 1), or photographs of a person with seven facial expressions (multi-expression-exposure) three times each (Experiment 2). Then, the likability toward the exposed person was measured using the Go/No-go Association Task. The results indicated that the effect of the multiple exposures from various angles was equivalent to exposure to only one full-face photograph shown 21 times (Experiment 1). Moreover, likability was significantly higher in the case of exposure to various facial expressions than for exposure to only a single facial expression (Experiment 2). The results suggest that exposure to various stimuli in a category is more effective than repeated exposure to a single stimulus for increasing likability.
This study investigated the relationship between the distinctness of vowels in speech and impressions of the speaker's personality and speech style. Vowel sounds are considered to carry mainly phonetic information. For the experiment, formant frequencies of vowel sounds in original speech were altered to synthesize speech stimuli into four levels of formant contrast among different vowels. In Experiment 1, 36 university students listened to the speech stimuli and evaluated the speaker's personality using the Big Five scale. In Experiment 2, 35 participants evaluated the speech style. As the phonetic contrast between vowels became bigger, the trait evaluations of “conscientiousness” showed an asymptotic increase. “Agreeableness” was evaluated as high when the vowel contrast was somewhat bigger than the original before beginning to decrease. Regarding speech styles, “naturalness” and “fluency” were evaluated highest when vowel contrasts were somewhat bigger. “Pleasantness” was evaluated equally high for original and somewhat big contrasts, but lowest for the smallest contrast. In conclusion, vowel distinctness conveys not only phonetic information but also contributes to impressions of speech style and the speaker's personality systematically.
It is difficult to estimate and examine correlations between individual preferences for alternatives using the present Scheffé-type paired comparison models. In this paper, we propose two models that address individual preferences for alternatives. One is a simple model that makes it possible to estimate correlations between individual preferences. The other is an improved model that makes it possible to extract independent components from those correlations. Paired comparison data were collected in a survey about preferences for several new product names. Analysis of this data shows that the proposed models enabled the estimation not only of average preferences for alternatives, but also correlations between individual preferences and loading matrices for independent components. The effectiveness of the proposed methods was confirmed by the interpretations of those estimates.
Four studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between valences of self-evaluation and approach-avoidance tendencies. Based on regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997, 1998), we predicted that positivity of self-evaluation is related to the tendency to approach gains, while negativity of self-evaluation is related to the tendency to avoid losses. In Study 1, a self-report measure of behavioral tendencies for approaching gains and avoiding losses was developed. In Studies 2 to 4, correlations between these approach/avoidance tendencies and various kinds of self-evaluations were examined. Overall, the authors' predictions were supported. The results suggest that the self-evaluation system and the self-regulation system work in close cooperation with each other in controlling human behavior.
The effect of self-relevance of a non-critical item in the Concealed Information Test (CIT) was investigated. Respiration, skin conductance response (SCR), heart rate, and normalized pulse volume were recorded while performing the CIT using a stimulus set composed of 4 items (with one self-relevant item). Thirty participants were instructed to recognize one item as critical and the remaining items as non-critical (positive group), and 33 participants were instructed to recognize all items as non-critical (negative group). In the positive group, a differential reactivity was observed between the critical and non-critical items, despite the self-relevance of the non-critical item. In the negative group, a differential reactivity between the self-relevant and non-self-relevant items was observed for SCR only. However, when individual data were analyzed, there was a differential reactivity between self-relevant and non-self-relevant items on physiological measures other than SCR for some participants in the negative group. These results suggest that the self-relevance of a non-critical item might cause false positive results in “negative” participants, particularly when only SCR is used to assess differential reactivity.
The present research investigated the relationship between public anxiety about a variety of risks and trust in the management of each risk. Adults (N = 2200) were selected from the residents' basic registers using a stratified two-step random sampling method. Of this sample, 1192 (54.2%) rated their anxiety toward 51 kinds of risks and their trust in the management of each risk. Six-point scales were utilized for their ratings. The results demonstrated that the more the risk management was trusted, the less the risk was of concern. The basic statistics for the trust ratings are provided for the discussion of societal risk governance. The implications and limitations of the present findings are discussed.
This study investigated the effect of verbalizing a model's performance for the acquisition of counseling skills. Paraphrasing, a counseling skill used in microcounseling, was used as an index of the acquisition of counseling skills. Undergraduate students (N = 56) were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: self-verbalization group (n = 18), experimenter-verbalization group (n = 21), and non-verbalization control group (n = 17). Pretests, posttests, and follow-up tests (one week later) were used to examine paraphrasing scores. Modeling was practiced after the pretest. From the pretest to the posttest, all three groups showed a performance gain, although the self-verbalization group showed a greater performance gain than the other two groups. From the posttest to the follow-up test, the control group showed a performance loss, while the performance of the other two groups remained at the same level. These findings suggest that verbalization of a model's performance in microcounseling improves the acquisition and the maintenance of the counseling skills.