This study examined the effects of internal working models of attachment on cognition about emotion in facial expressions. Ninety-five university students participated in a survey and an experiment. The results revealed that (a) effects of internal working models of attachment emerged when there were discrepancies between facial expressions and the emotions that should be rated, (b) “anxiety” did not affect the rating scores or reaction times, and (c) participants who scored high in “avoidance” needed more time to judge the absence of emotions in facial expressions. These results indicate that the dimension of “avoidance” affects automatic information processing.
Gitaigo is a subtype of mimetic words (onomatopoeia) in the Japanese language, which can be regarded as words that imitate actions or states. This study develops a personality scale, with six subscales, using 60 gitaigo words as items for rating the personality of the self and others. We asked 1 054 participants to rate their own personality and 905 participants to rate a close friend's personality, using 158 gitaigo words as items to describe personality. We found that a six-factor model, found in our previous study, was also applicable to the present study of ratings of participants' own personality. We also found six groups of words in the ratings of close friends' personality, although the factor structure is slightly different from the self-rating factors. We selected ten words that exhibited high loadings for each of the six factors to develop a personality scale with six subscales showing high reliability. We named those factors: Cowardliness, Slowness, Preciseness, Irritableness, Candidness, and Frivolousness. The average scores for self-ratings were significantly lower for two subscales (Preciseness and Candidness) and higher for other four subscales compared to the rating of others.
Personality scales based on the five-factor model, especially the Big-Five Scale of personality trait adjectives (Wada, 1996), are commonly used in Japan. In this study a short form of the Big-Five Scale was constructed. To avoid changes in the capacity dimension caused by the decrease in the number of items, item selection was conducted after Item Response Theory (IRT) scales were constructed for all the items. In Study 1 data was collected from 2 099 participants. A Generalized Partial Credit Model was applied to the IRT model, and items were selected using the slope and location parameters for each item. Cronbach's alpha showed that the short form, as well as the five sub-scales, had sufficient reliability as a personality test. In Study 2, we determined correlations with the NEO-FFI and tested the concurrent validity of the short form. The results indicate that the short form of Big-Five Scale demonstrates sufficient reliability and validity despite the reduced number of items.
This study investigated the images that people have of the unemployed. In Study 1, general images of the unemployed were ascertained through qualitative and quantitative research. Various images, both positive and negative, were found for the unemployed in general. In Study 2, a scale to measure the level of stigma associated with the unemployed was created based on the images from Study 1. The results yielded four sub-scales for stigma associated with the unemployed. University students seemed to show more stigma for the unemployed on some sub-scales than typical adults did. Working experiences, such as an internship or a part-time job during student life, would promote the reduction of the stigma associated with the unemployed.
This study developed the Coping Scale for Interpersonal Stress Events, and evaluated its validity. This scale is composed of the following subscales based on the goals of the coping: problem-focused coping, emotion-focused behavioral coping, and emotion-focused cognitive coping. Based on previous research, a pilot study was used to construct scale items, considering the goals of coping to reduce measurement error. In Study 1 (N = 348), the validity of the scale was examined using several statistical analyses. Study 2 (N = 182) and Study 3 (N = 161) report correlations between the Coping Scale for Interpersonal Stress Events and several theoretically relevant scales. Based on these results, it was concluded that the scale and subscales are valid for measuring interpersonal stress coping.
This research employed an extended hypothetical model that included the cognitions of attribution and importance from Oliver's (1980) expectancy-disconfirmation model. The model examined factors which might mitigate the experiences of dissatisfied passengers who encountered the types of service disruption that occur frequently on city train routes. A covariance structural analysis model was applied to questionnaire data obtained from 5 383 railroad users who encountered problems. The passengers' degree of discontent was most strongly influenced by their evaluation of the responsibility attributed by the railroad company. The strong influence of the passengers' impression of the impropriety of the railroad company's announcements regarding the train service make it imperative for the railroad company to take strong corrective action. The passengers' dissatisfaction will decrease greatly when there are appropriate announcements, in addition to the alleviation of discrepancies related to time, confusion, and changes.
This study examined the relationship between emotional suppression and psychological distress in response to a diagnosis related to breast cancer. After their first visit, 31 patients with breast cancer and 90 with benign breast conditions completed the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (CECS) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and were interviewed about their concerns after being diagnosed. Breast cancer and benign breast condition patients were divided into separate emotional suppression groups or emotional expression groups based on their median CECS score. The POMS scores of breast cancer patients were higher than those of benign breast condition patients; scores in the emotional suppression groups were higher than in the emotional expression groups. Breast cancer patients in the emotional suppression group expressed more negative emotions and fewer positive emotions than benign breast condition patients. Our results suggest that patients who suppressed their emotions experienced and reported more psychological distress when diagnosed with breast cancer.
The influence of self-reference and emotionally valent material on list-method directed forgetting was investigated. Participants studied Lists 1 and 2, both of which consisted of positive, negative, and neutral trait adjectives. Each participant was randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: self-reference judgment, social desirability judgment, and control (no specific judgment). Half of the participants in each condition received the forget instruction telling them to forget List 1 and to remember List 2 (Forget group). The other half received the remember instruction telling them to remember both Lists 1 and 2 (Remember group). All participants were then asked to recall all the list words, including those that they were instructed to forget. Results indicated that the directed forgetting effect disappeared in the self-reference judgment condition: in the Forget group, List 1 recall was poorer than recall of List 2, and the Forget group participants recalled fewer List 1 words compared to the Remember group participants. Neither the emotional valence nor self-reference of the material modulated the magnitude of this effect. It is concluded that self-reference may modify directed forgetting.
The relationship between assertiveness and internal and external adjustment was investigated. Elementary school children in grades four to six (n = 207) and their classroom teachers (n = 8) participated in the study. Internal and external adjustments were measured by using self-ratings, and self- and other- ratings respectively. The children responded to a questionnaires inquiring about assertiveness that included two components of assessment: “self expression” and “consideration for others”. Then, the children were divided into 4 groups according to their scores on these two components of assertiveness. The results indicated that children scoring high on both components of assertiveness had higher self-rating scores than those scoring low on both components. Moreover, children that scored high on “consideration for others” tended to have high external adjustment. Also, boys that scored low on “self expression” had lower external adjustment as indicated by the negative ratings of teachers. Furthermore, girls that scored high on “consideration for others” had high external adjustment as indicated by positive ratings of teachers and same-sexed classmates.