Thinness is considered as one type of adornment; as such, it has a psychological function for others. Thus the drive for thinness and dieting were investigated from the viewpoint of impression management. Study 1 investigated a model that the need for approval affects dieting through the outcome expectancies of others' evaluations and the drive for thinness. The results of structural equation modeling indicated high validity for this model. Study 2 investigated the moderating role of self-esteem in the relationship between positive/negative outcome expectancies of others' evaluations and the drive for thinness. The results showed that self-esteem did not act as a moderator between the two components and the drive for thinness.
In multi-attribute decision making, the similarity, attraction, and compromise effects warrant specific investigation as they cause violations of principles in rational choice. In order to investigate these three effects simultaneously, we assigned 145 undergraduates to three context effect conditions. We requested them to solve the same 20 hypothetical purchase problems, each of which had three alternatives described along two attributes. We measured their choices, confidence ratings, and response times. We found that manipulating the third alternative had significant context effects for choice proportions and confidence ratings in all three conditions. Furthermore, the attraction effect was the most prominent with regard to choice proportions. In the compromise effect condition, although the choice proportion of the third alternative was high, the confidence rating was low and the response time was long. These results indicate that the relationship between choice proportions and confidence ratings requires further theoretical investigation. They also suggest that a combination of experimental and modeling studies is imperative to reveal the mechanisms underlying the context effects in multi-attribute, multi-alternative decision making.
This study investigated the impaired self-awareness (ISA) of memory deficit in 63 brain injury patients with amnesia. The purpose of this study was (a) to elucidate the relation between degree of ISA and memory deficit measured by several neuropsychological memory tests, (b) to examine the relation between degree of ISA and the post-injury duration, and (c) to investigate the influence of ISA on independent behaviors and occupational outcomes. We measured ISA by using discrepancy methods, which is the difference of the evaluated frequency of the patient's memory problems in daily living as judged by the patients themselves and by their family caregivers. The results showed that the patients underestimated their memory problems more than their caregivers did. Regarding the relationship of ISA and neuropsychological memory tests, performance involving orientation, delayed recall of a story, and abstract figures (Rey Complex Figure Test) were related. Moreover, the degree of ISA influenced independent behavior and occupational outcomes. However, the duration from post-injury did not influence the degree of ISA. These results indicate that not only an approach to enhance neuropsychological memory functions but also an approach to develop an appropriate self-awareness of memory deficit is important for independent living and social reintegration.
This study examined and compared beliefs about the ability to remember of three groups of adults: 99 young, 97 middle-aged, and 104 older adults. The beliefs were assessed by asking participants to indicate the expected trajectory over the lifespan on a graphic rating scale, the General Beliefs about Memory Instrument (GBMI) (Lineweaver & Hertzog, 1998). The results showed the following. Although all age groups expect a decline in the ability to remember with age with the peak around 20─30 years old, older adults perceive an age-related sharp decline later in life than the other age groups do. All age groups perceive that remembering names is more affected by age than any other memory abilities. The trajectory of age decline in remembering in general coincides with that in remembering trivia. All age groups believe that the ability to remember at the age of 10 is as good as at the age of 40. All age groups responded to the scales based mainly on the abilities based on their experiences.
The present study investigated the effect of optimistic bias on help-seeking intentions and behaviors in relation to health care professionals and nonprofessionals for depressive symptoms. In addition, the study tested the hypothesis that seeking help from professionals poses a greater threat for self-esteem than from non-professionals. A questionnaire survey (N = 462) using clinical vignettes was conducted with university students. The results suggested that optimistic bias had an impact on help-seeking intentions and behaviors directed towards both health care professionals and nonprofessionals. There seemed to be a relatively stronger threat to self-esteem in help-seeking involving nonprofessionals and a weaker threat in help-seeking involving professionals, contrary to previous studies. The results were explained by the threat to self-esteem and equity theories. Understanding the rationale of optimistic bias and symptom recognition in the help-seeking process may provide relevant information to bridge the service gap in the treatment of depression.
The present study focused on attitudes related to inhibiting spousal disclosure about stress as an influential factor for the mental health of firefighters. In a pilot study using semi-structured interviews (N = 14), we found that some firefighters usually did not talk about their stresses with their spouses. Some reasons were that they were hiding their weakness, were feeling sure of controlling their stress, out of consideration for their spouse, were giving up on the possibility for improving the situation after spousal disclosure, or hoped to distract themselves. In a subsequent questionnaire survey (N = 554), the results showed that attitudes about inhibiting spousal disclosure of stress have an effect on spousal disclosure about stress and the mental health of firefighters. The findings of the present study imply that spousal disclosure about interpersonal stress can be regarded as an effective factor, along with the disclosure to colleagues, for relieving stress. It is necessary to consider the importance of attitudes about inhibiting disclosure for stress as part of stress management for firefighters.
The relative order of a letter sequence is difficult to recognize when it is presented repeatedly than when it is presented only once in a rapid serial visual presentation (Holcombe, Kanwisher, & Triesman, 2001). In the present study, we investigated a critical factor that causes this order deficit. Experiment 1 demonstrated that repeating a letter sequence in a short time period induced the order deficit. The robust order deficit did not recover even when the letter sequence included a salient item that attracted exogenous attention. Experiment 2 showed that attending to a briefly presented letter triggered the order deficit for a letter sequence presented within 500 ms after the preceding letter. These results suggest that the order deficit is caused by the temporal limits of visual attention that prevent order information from being consolidated into visual working memory.
This paper examines the determinants, and interrelationships, of trust of the Forest Administration by using structural equation modeling with questionnaire data from 1 500 residents in six prefectures. The proposed model demonstrates that value similarity, ability and intention are determinants of the trust of the Forest Administration. There is a causal relationship of intention to value similarity. Furthermore, multiple group analysis in the structural equation modeling showed that the group with high interest in local forest problems showed a relatively large influence of intention and value similarity, compared to the low interest group, where intention and ability had a relatively large influence.
Behavioral standards are an important determinant of delinquent behavior. The present study investigated the associations between behavioral standards and juvenile delinquency of children in reformatory institutions. A total of 1 248 children in reformatory institutions completed the Standard for Public Space Scale (SPS). The resulting alpha coefficients suggested that the SPS had high internal reliability. Factor analysis revealed five factors: (a) Public Values, (b) Egocentric, (c) Regional-standards, (d) Peer-standards, and (e) Care about Others. Cluster analysis revealed that juvenile delinquency experiences fell into two clusters of “likelihood of committing a crime” and “committing a crime”. In addition, ANOVAs suggested that juvenile delinquents in reformatory institutions had higher scores on factors of Egocentric and Peer-standards on the behavioral standards, compared to juvenile non-delinquents. The value of using the Standard for Public Space Scale for the study of juvenile delinquency was discussed.
Interest in a science and technology career, and determinants of such interest, were investigated. In Study 1, self-efficacy for work activities and interest in a science and technology career were assessed. Participants were undergraduate students (n = 264; 132 men, 132 women) and graduates (n = 276; 146 men, 130 women). Graduates were more interested in a science and technology career than undergraduate students, and men were more interested in a technology career than women. Moreover, self-efficacy for realistic and investigative activities was positively related with interest in such a career. In Study 2, relationships between self-efficacy for realistic and investigative activities and childhood experiences were investigated using data from undergraduates (n = 262; 132 men, 130 women) and graduates (n = 274; 141 men, 133 women). Individuals who frequently experienced daily activities, activities in nature, and activities with animals and plants in their childhood had higher self-efficacy for realistic and investigative activities. Moreover, graduates had such past experiences more frequently than undergraduates and males more frequently than females.
This study examines an effect of collective victimhood in intergroup relations. Collective victimhood is the belief that an ingroup has been harmed by an outgroup. Previous studies focusing on collective victimhood have shown that collective victimhood escalates intergroup conflict. We predicted that the effect of collective victimhood on intergroup aggression would involve two different emotional processes: anger and fear. To test this hypothesis, Japanese attitudes toward the Chinese were examined in the context of Japan-China relations. The results of structural equation modeling showed that collective victimhood enhanced both anger and fear. However, intergroup emotions had converse effects on intergroup aggression. While anger promoted intergroup aggression, fear inhibited it. Nationalism promoted collective victimhood. These findings suggest that, in intergroup conflict, collective victimhood affects intergroup aggression through two emotional processes, which have inverse effects on the aggression.