The relationship between a recipient's response to a disclosure of negative emotional experiences, and the resulting negative emotions, hesitation in self-disclosure (interpersonal and intra-personal hesitation), and negatively-confused thoughts of the person making the disclosure were investigated. Female undergraduates (N=271) were asked to write about angry or sad events in their interpersonal relationships that they had disclosed to someone. Then they completed a questionnaire assessing the recipient's responses, negative emotions such as anger and depression caused by the recipient's responses, hesitation in self-disclosure about the events, and negatively-confused thoughts about the events. The results of covariance structure analysis indicated that a recipient's rejection in response to the disclosure of negative emotional experiences resulted in negative thoughts caused by an increase of negative emotions and hesitation in self-disclosure. The results also showed that a recipient's acceptance also increased depression in the person making the self-disclosure, which intensified the intra-personal hesitation, and increased negatively-confused thoughts.
The effectiveness of detecting deception by measuring eye movements without making contact was investigated. A deception-detection protocol was used with two conditions based on the stimulus similarity to the critical image. Volunteer participants (N = 63) were randomly assigned to either the high or the low-similarity condition. They were randomly presented with critical and non-critical images and their eye movements were measured without contact. High-similarity images were presented in the high-similarity condition and low-similarity images were presented in the low-similarity condition. The results showed no significant differences in eye movements between the critical and non-critical images in the high-similarity condition. In contrast, in the low-similarity condition, the frequency and total length of time for glancing at critical images were significantly lower than for glancing at non-critical images. These results are suggestive of the effectiveness of the non-contact measurement of eye movements for the detection of deception.
This article examines the effects of language use on explicit and implicit attitudes. We employed the matched-guise technique to measure participants' impressions of standard-Japanese and Osaka-dialect speakers. Implicit attitudes were assessed by the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The Osaka-dialect speaker was evaluated as warmer than the standard-Japanese speaker, suggesting that explicit attitudes toward the Osaka dialect have changed positively. On the other hand, the results for the impression of intelligence were consistent with the previous literature that the standard-Japanese speaker was seen as more intelligent than the Osaka-dialect speaker. Compared with explicit attitudes, the analyses of implicit attitudes revealed that participants showed a consistent implicit bias favoring standard-Japanese language use. The changing processes and relationships of explicit and implicit attitudes were discussed.
This study describes the development and evaluation of the Self-Report Altruism Scale Distinguished by the Recipient (SRAS-DR). The relationship between an actor and a recipient is important for evolutionary studies of altruistic behavior. However, the existing scale for Japanese undergraduates does not distinguish recipients of altruistic behaviors. We developed a new self-report altruism scale based on an evolutionary viewpoint. In Study 1, undergraduate students described their altruistic behaviors in daily life, which we classified according to the recipients (family members, friends or acquaintances and strangers). Then we chose 21 items (7 items for each recipient class) to construct the SRAS-DR by using exploratory factor analyses. In Study 2, we investigated validity and reliability of the scale. The scores were significantly correlated with other relevant scales as well as with behavioral indicators. Test-retest reliability was high. These results indicate that the SRAS-DR has acceptable reliability and validity, and can be used in evolutionary studies of human altruism.
This study developed a Japanese version of the Valuation of Life (VOL) scale, to measure psychological well-being among older adults. In Analysis 1, we conducted a factor analysis of 13 items, and identified two factors: positive VOL and spiritual well-being. These factors had adequate degrees of internal consistency, and were related to positive mental health. In Analysis 2, we examined sociodemographic, social, and health predictors for VOL. The role of social factors was stronger than the role of health factors, and spiritual well-being was more related to moral or religious activities than positive VOL. These results suggest that predictors for VOL vary by culture. In Analysis 3, we investigated the relationship between VOL and desired years of life. Positive VOL significantly predicted more desired years of life, whereas spiritual well-being did not. Positive VOL had acceptable reliability and validity. Future research is required to investigate whether VOL predicts survival duration or end-of-life decisions.
There are many studies about social skills and social skills training in Japan, most of which include listening skills among the target skills. Listening skills are important for adolescents because they are necessary to start and cultivate relationships with friends. The present study developed a revised version of listening skills scales for high school students, and confirmed their reliability and validity. Listening skills consist of two domains: cognitive skills and behavioral skills. Because these two domains are conceptually independent, a cognitive skills scale and a behavioral skills scale were constructed separately. Based on factor analyses, three cognitive and five behavioral subscales were constructed. These scales had sufficient internal consistency and showed positive relationships between empathy, social self-regulation, and other social skills scales. Further applications of these scales were discussed.
Stress estimation is involved in the production of stress management behavior. Stress underestimation could hinder efforts to adequately manage stress. This study developed a measure to assess stress underestimation beliefs. Questionnaire surveys were conducted by mail twice on 2,340 adults aged from 20 to 65 years. The data from the surveys were subject to factor analysis, from which we developed a 12-item scale to assess stress underestimation beliefs (SUB). The SUB included four subscales: “Excessive self-efficacy for managing stress,” “Insensitivity to stress,” “Overgeneralization of stress,” and “Evasive attitude towards stress.” The SUB had adequate internal consistency. Higher SUB scores were associated with being in the precontemplation stage of change in terms of stress management behaviors, working long overtime hours (more than 81 hours per month), and having fewer self-reported stress symptoms. The SUB is potentially useful for assessing stress underestimation in the context of stress management.
When individuals are required to frequently switch among a small set of simple tasks, immediately after switching tasks, the responses become substantially slower and usually more error-prone. This phenomenon is known as the “switching cost.” Two main hypotheses have been proposed to explain switching cost: (1) Proactive interference and (2) Time for task-set reconfiguration. The present study examined the relationship between the attentional control load of switching tasks and the switching cost from the perspective of the time for task-set reconfiguration hypothesis, by using the group version of the Stroop tasks. Healthy participants (N = 216; mean age 19.9 years) participated in the study. Four switching conditions were used: (1) No-switch, (2) Selective input control switch, (3) S-R mapping switch, and (4) Translation process switch. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between the number of correct responses in conditions (1) and (3), whereas there was a significant reduction in the number of correct responses in condition (4) relative to (1) and (2). These findings suggest that the switch cost in Stroop and reverse Stroop tasks results from the time taken for attentional control, such as the selective input control switch and the translation process switch.
Readers' beliefs about text comprehension affect how they read texts. A previous study showed two types of readers' beliefs; one is a “transmission belief” which emphasizes the importance of understanding an author's intended meaning, while the other is a “transaction belief” which emphasizes the importance of reader-generated meaning. We expect that these beliefs also affect summarization, where readers need to effectively elicit important information from the text and reconstruct it. The present study examined how readers' beliefs were related to the quality of summaries they made for a scientific article. We used the followings as indicators of the quality of the summaries: how information from a scientific article was elicited and reconstructed, and to what extent the summaries were comprehensible. The results suggest that the stronger the transmission belief of a reader was, the less effectively the reader elicited and reconstructed information and the less comprehensible the summary was. Although it cannot reveal the relationships between the transaction belief and the quality of summaries, the present study suggests that readers' beliefs about text comprehension affect summarization.