This longitudinal study examined relations between family expressiveness and child behavior problems. I explored how maternal depressive symptoms and sensitivity might mediate associations between family expressiveness and child behavior problems. Mothers completed the Family Expressiveness Questionnaire at 9 months, the Beck Depression Inventory at 18 months, and the Child Behavior Checklist at 30 months. Maternal sensitivity during mother-child interactions was assessed at 18 months. A path analysis revealed that maternal depressive symptoms but not maternal sensitivity mediated the effect of family expressiveness on child behavior problems, although family expressiveness was not directly related to child behavior problems. These results suggest that the family emotional climate indirectly plays a role in the child psychological functioning.
The effects of recollection and familiarity on recognition memory in the Concealed Information Test (CIT) were investigated. In the learning phase, participants encoded 20 words that were presented in one of four frames on a personal computer screen. Next, in the recognition test, the participants were divided into “Remember judgment (Recollection)” or “Know judgment (Familiarity)” groups, based on their Remember/Know judgment when recognizing learned items. In the CIT phase, physiological responses to questions about learned (i.e., critical) and non-learned (i.e., non-critical) items were measured and recorded. The results indicated that there was a deceleration of respiration speed (RS), an increase in skin conductance response (SCR), and a drop in heart rate in responses to critical items for both groups. Furthermore, the effect sizes of RS and SCR were greater in the “Remember judgment” group compared to the “Know judgment” group. These results suggest that critical response patterns are generated by recollection and familiarity. However, the more vividly participants recognized critical items the larger were the magnitudes of RS and SCR response patterns.
This study examined the behavioral patterns of Japanese extremist groups, based on 377 terror incidents that occurred in Japan between 1990 and 2010. These incidents included bombings, rocket attacks, hostage taking, and vehicle assaults. Information was drawn primarily from on-line newspaper databases. A multiple correspondence analysis was performed using five categories: extremist group identity, time of attack, target of attack, attack strategy, and method of claiming responsibility. Extremist group characteristics varied along two dimensions: the interaction level between terrorist and victim, and the indiscriminate level of use of force. We categorized multiple far-left, far-right, and religious extremist groups based on these two dimensions. Our findings may help prevent terror attacks, and help identify the group responsible for a given incident.
This study reports about the development of the Japanese version of the Emotion Awareness Questionnaire for junior high school students. Emotion Awareness Questionnaire (EAQ; Rieffe, Oosterveld, Miers, Meerum Terwogt, & Ly, 2008) for children and adolescents aims not only to monitor and differentiate emotions but also to measure attitudes about emotions. It consists of six factors: differentiating emotions, verbal sharing of emotions, not hiding emotion, bodily awareness, attending to others’ emotion, analyses of emotions. To examine the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the EAQ, junior high school students (7th to 9th grades) were requested to complete the questionnaires (n=535 in time 1, n=537 in time 2, n=330 in time 3). The results showed that the Japanese version of the EAQ had almost the same six-factor structure as the original one. It also had moderate internal consistency and test-retest reliability (three weeks). The validity of the scale was examined in relation to emotional intelligence, social anxiety, depression, psychological stress responses, evaluation of emotions, self esteem and sense of authenticity. The results confirmed that the Japanese version of the EAQ had good validity.
The present study developed the Parenting in Adolescence Scale (PAS) based on the three-factor model of parenting by Schaefer (1965), and examined its psychometric properties. Adolescents (n = 103 junior high, 273 high school and 667 university students) completed a questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis identified three distinct factors labeled “Acceptance” (6 items), “Psychological control” (6 items) and “Parental monitoring” (3 items). Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated the stability of the factor structure with adequate goodness of fit indices. The three subscales of PAS had adequate internal consistency and satisfactory test-retest reliability. The three scales also correlated significantly with measures of adolescent conduct problems, peer problems, risk-taking experience, prosocial behavior, self-esteem, and another parenting scale, which indicated construct and concurrent validity. The practical use of the PAS was discussed.
Character education in the US aims to establish good habits corresponding to good character. The purpose of this study was to determine the structure of character strengths and the relations among these strengths and well-being in Japanese children and youth. Peterson and Seligman (2004) developed a classification of character strengths called VIA-IS. We thought, however, that VIA-IS had too many items to use with school children. We selected 15 categories and developed a questionnaire for Japanese children and youth. Fourth to eighth grade students (N = 1,351) answered questionnaires in Study 1. We found four categories of character strengths, each of which consisted of 25 items: perseverance-honesty, courage-ideas, compassion-gratitude, and fairness-care. These categories were very similar to previous research findings which simplified the categories. In Study 2, we found a positive relationship among four categories of character strengths and well-being, which we called the hope scale, life satisfaction scale, subjective happiness scale, and social support scale. We discussed what additional research was needed for establishing good habits using our categories with children and youth in schools.
This study reports about the construction of a bidimensional measure of optimism and pessimism (defined as positive and negative outcome expectancies), called the Japanese Optimism and Pessimism Scale (J-OPS), and examines its reliability and validity. The participants were college students. The results revealed the following: (a) the J-OPS had sufficient reliability and validity, (b) optimism and pessimism were bidimensional in structure, (c) the general pattern of correlations with external criteria of psychological well-being (positive and negative affectivity). After controlling for optimism and pessimism respectively, it indicated that these two constructs were partially independent of each other. Namely, optimism, but not pessimism, was found to be a consistent predictor of positive affectivity (psychological well-being), whereas pessimism, but not optimism, was found to be a predictor of negative affectivity (psychological distress).
Based on the Redressive subscale of the Reformative-Redressive Self-control Scale (Sugiwaka, 1995), 10 high-scoring (highest 25%: HRD group) and 9 low-scoring (lowest 25%: LRD group) college students were selected, all with Reformative subscale scores within the intermediate 50%. They were then given (1) a hypothetical delay-discounting task, where they chose between ¥100,000 available after a delay and a lesser amount of money available immediately, and also (2) a hypothetical effort-discounting task, where they chose between ¥100,000 available by an effort (writing a paper) and a lesser amount of money available with no effort. Using the indifference points, discount rates (k-values) based on Mazur’s (1987) hyperbolic equation and the areas under the curve (AUC) were calculated. The k-value was significantly smaller in the HRD group than in the LRD group for both the effort-discounting and the delay-discounting tasks. The AUC was significantly larger in the HRD group than in the LRD group for both tasks. Possible interactional processes between Reformative Self-control and Redressive Self-control affecting discounting were discussed.
The relationship between children’s reward-distribution judgments and their distribution strategies was investigated. Five-year-old children (N = 61) were presented with two stories where two characters made different numbers of origami stars. The children were asked to distribute different numbers of rewards to the characters: equal to (Middle-N), less than (Small-N), or more than (Large-N) the total number of stars in each story. Distribution strategies were categorized into two types: One-round, where rewards were distributed in one round only, and Cyclic, where the rewards were distributed in several cycles across the characters. In the Small-N of both stories (4 or 8 rewards), most children distributed rewards equally. When the number of rewards was 4, more than half used the One-round strategy, but when it was 8, more than half used the Cyclic strategy. In the Middle-N and Large-N conditions, most equal distributions used the Cyclic strategy, whereas almost all the proportional-equity distributions were associated with the One-round strategy, and most ordinal-equity distributions used the Cyclic strategy. The relationships between automatic/controlled reward-distribution judgments and distribution strategies were discussed.
The sense of self-agency is the sense that “I am the one” causing an action. Previous studies showed that multiple cues (such as congruency between prediction and actual effects, and conceptual congruency between preview and effects) contributed to explicit judgments of agency. This study independently manipulated these cues to investigate how such multiple cues of agency are integrated to form an attribution of agency. The results showed that when action became a reliably predictive cue of the occurrence of the outcome through preceding learning trials, then the congruency between prediction and actual effects received a higher weighting for a judgment of agency, and conceptual congruency received a relatively lower weighting. In contrast, without a prior learning session, the conceptual congruency, instead of the congruency between prediction and actual effects, received a relatively higher weighting for a judgment of agency. These results support the optimal cue integration hypothesis that the sense of agency reflects the relative reliability of the respective agency cues in a given situation.