This study investigated the effects of rumination (reflective pondering and brooding) on automatic thoughts (both negative and positive) and depressive symptoms. University students (N=183; 96 men) completed the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire-Revised (ATQ-R), and Response Style Scale (RSS). We conducted a path analysis which included gender as a factor. The results revealed that brooding was associated
with negative automatic thoughts. Negative automatic thoughts contributed to the aggravation of depressive symptoms. In contrast, reflective pondering was associated with positive automatic thoughts. Positive automatic thoughts contributed to the reduction of depressive symptoms. These results indicate that rumination does not affect depressive symptoms directly. We suggest that rumination affects depressive symptoms indirectly through automatic thoughts, and that there are gender differences in the influence process.
Endo and Yukawa (2012) investigated the process of maintaining anger and demonstrated that a sense of unintegration of thoughts maintained anger by promoting recurrent thinking and avoidance behavior. Our present study examined how personality characteristics and situational factors affected the process of maintaining anger. Undergraduates (N=713) wrote about an anger episode, and completed questionnaires assessing their sense of unintegration of thoughts, recurrent thinking, avoidance behaviors, and maintaining anger. The questionnaires also assessed personality characteristics such as difficulty in identifying feelings, and situational factors such as the need for maintaining relationships, anger arousability, and meaning-making for the anger episode. The results of covariance structure analysis indicated that difficulties in identifying feelings and anger arousability contributed to maintaining anger by increasing the sense of unintegration of thoughts just after the episode. However, the need for maintaining relationships directly reduced the sense of unintegration of thoughts just after the episode, and indirectly decreased the present sense of unintegration of thoughts by meaning-making. Moreover, although recurrent thinking promoted the current sense of unintegration of thoughts, it also provided meaning.
This study examined the relationship among human relations in the workplace, job involvement, affective commitment and continuance commitment with occupational and organizational commitment, and well-being. Questionnaires were completed by 855 female nurses who worked in four public hospitals (mean age = 32.6 years).The results of factor analysis showed that each component of the vocational constructs was distinguishable from the others. Path analysis showed that human relations in the workplace directly influenced job involvement and affective commitment both to the occupation and to the organization. Job involvement in turn directly influenced affective commitment and continuance commitment to the occupation. Job involvement also influenced affective commitment to the organization directly, and indirectly through affective commitment to the occupation. Finally, it was found that human relations in the workplace and affective commitment to the occupation positively influenced well-being; continuance commitment to the occupation was a negative influence. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
This study examined the self-control mechanism focusing on autonomous motivation and competence according to the self-control strength model. A laboratory experiment was conducted individually with 90 university students to investigate the impact of autonomous motivation and competence on self-control, and the effect of an interaction of autonomous motivation and competence on the depletion of self-control strength. The results showed that autonomous motivation and competence each had an impact on two important components of selfcontrol: active goal pursuit and temptation resistance. Autonomous motivation influenced temptation resistance, and competence influenced active goal pursuit. Each factor had an exclusive role. Furthermore, the effect of their interaction influenced depletion of self-control strength by mechanisms indicating the different influences of each factor.
This study presents a new model of psychological processes to predict English communication behaviors of Japanese high school students. Various models have been proposed in Japan, based mainly on Canadian models, to predict second-language communication behaviors. This study shows problems with the previous models in Japan and introduces a new model from the perspective of “Expectancy-Value Theory”. Questionnaire Survey 1 compared the previous model and the modified models which suggested that a new psychological variable, “Value in English Communication”, was necessary to construct the new model. In Survey 2, the new model was further modified by incorporating into it various English learning values which the Japanese have. This study makes a significant contribution to studies and practices of teaching English as a foreign language in Japan.
The purposes of this study were 1) to identify healthy and unhealthy patterns of coping strategies after bereavement among spouses of cancer patients and 2) to explore the characteristics of patients and spouses associated with these patterns of coping strategies. The participants were 821 bereaved individuals whose spouses had died at the National Cancer Center Hospital East. Three patterns of coping strategies after bereavement were found:“Distraction Focused” (healthy), “Continuing Bonds Focused” (unhealthy), and “General Coping” (almost healthy). Two strategies for improving the unhealthy coping patterns of “Continuing Bonds Focused” were 1) enhancing “Distraction” and reducing “Continuing Bonds” for achieving “Distraction Focused” (healthy) and 2) enhancing both “Distraction” and “Social Sharing/Reconstruction” for achieving “General Coping” (almost healthy). The patients’ characteristics associated with the bereaved spouses’ coping strategy of “Continuing Bonds Focused” were “under 65 years”, “history of psychiatric consultation”, “duration of last hospital admission was less than one week”, and “time since cancer diagnosis to death was less than one year”. These four characteristics of the deceased patients were considered to be risk factors for spouses who would utilize unhealthy coping patterns after bereavement.
The Thinking About Life Experiences (TALE) Scale (Bluck & Alea, 2011) has three subscales that assess the self, social, and directive functions of autobiographical memory. This study constructs a Japanese version of the TALE Scale and examines its reliability and validity. Fifteen items that assess the three functions of autobiographical memory were translated into Japanese. We conducted an online investigation with 600 men and women between 20-59 years of age. In Study 1, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis identified that the three-factor structure of the Japanese version of the TALE Scale was the same as the original TALE Scale. Sufficient internal consistency of the scale was found, and the construct validity of the scale was supported by correlation analysis. Study 2 confirmed that the test-retest reliabilities of the three subscales were sufficient. Thus, this Japanese version of the TALE Scale is useful to assess autobiographical memory functions in Japan.
This study examined the influence of olfactory impressions on the perceived effects of lip balm. Twenty female college students used two types of lip balm: one with natural essences (lemon or vanilla) and one without. Then they rated their perceived experience of the balms. The results showed that the participants felt that the balm with lemon essence was significantly smoother than the ones with vanilla or without natural essences. Furthermore, the participants felt that the balm with vanilla essence was significantly stickier than the ones with lemon or without natural essences. Also, the participants felt that the balm with lemon essence had marginally better moisturizing properties than the one with vanilla. These results suggest that olfactory cognition influences the perception of tactile sensations.
This study examined the influence of affect on interpersonal relationships in a dyadic communication context. The combination of speakers’ affective states was considered, as compared to previous studies which considered only the individual’s affective state. The independent variables, in a between-subjects design, were affective condition (positive vs. negative) and affective combination (similar vs. dissimilar). Participants (N = 86) took a test on creative thinking and were given false feedback. Then they had a 6-minute conversation and answered questions about their satisfaction with the conversation and their impressions of their partner. Results showed that the two-factor interactions were significant for satisfaction with the conversation and interpersonal impressions (social desirability) of the partner. The scores for these variables in the positive affect condition were higher than in the negative affect condition only when the affective combination was dissimilar. These results show that individual’s affect could not predict conversational outcomes. The results were discussed in terms of incorrect inferences about the partner’s affective state and imbalanced conversation activity.
The “double dissociation model” of shyness proposed by Asendorpf, Banse, and Mücke (2002) was demonstrated in Japan by Aikawa and Fujii (2011). However, the generalizability of the double dissociation model of shyness was uncertain. The present study examined whether the results reported in Aikawa and Fujii (2011) would be replicated. In Study 1, college students (n = 91) completed explicit self-ratings of shyness and other personality scales. In Study 2, forty-eight participants completed IAT (Implicit Association Test) for shyness, and their friends (n = 141) rated those participants on various personality scales. The results revealed that only the explicit self-concept ratings predicted other-rated low praise-seeking behavior, sociable behavior and high rejection-avoidance behavior (controlled shy behavior). Only the implicit self-concept measured by the shyness IAT predicted other-rated high interpersonal tension (spontaneous shy behavior). The results of this study are similar to the findings of the previous research, which supports generalizability of the double dissociation model of shyness.
We used a global/local processing task with hierarchically structured visual stimuli to investigate whether each hemisphere independently modulates visual selectivity depending on conflict frequency. In both of the present experiments, a hierarchical pattern consisting of large (global) letter made up of small (local) letters was briefly presented to unilateral visual-field (LVF/RVF) and the congruency between the local and global levels was manipulated. An important manipulation was that the congruency ratio in a given block differed between the two visual-fields (80% and 20%). We required right-handed participants to identify the global (Experiment 1) and local level (Experiment 2) of the hierarchical stimulus. The results showed that when the stimuli were projected to the nondominant hemisphere for the task demand (left hemisphere in the global task and right hemisphere in the local task) the size of the interference (local interference in Experiment 1 and global interference in Experiment 2) was larger in the 80% congruent condition than in the 20% congruent condition, whereas it was invariant when the stimuli were projected to the dominant hemisphere. These results demonstrate that each hemisphere independently works cognitive control.