This study describes the development and evaluation of the Benefit Finding Scale in Developmental Disorder Parenting (BFS-DDP). Using this scale, we examined the stress-buffering effects of identifying positive implications and benefits of having a child with developmental disorders in parents of such children. The BFS-DDP was developed from a questionnaire survey of mothers (N = 265) of children with developmental disorders. Exploratory and confirmatory analysis identified four factors: (a) “deepened relationships,” (b) “changed life,” (c) “changed life philosophy,” and (d) “personal strength.” These factors had high degrees of internal consistency. Furthermore, BFS-DDP scores significantly correlated with measuring optimism and meaningfulness, indicating good convergent validity. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that benefit finding significantly decreased stress response in the presence of high stressors. These results suggest that benefit finding may have a stress-buffering effect.
Previous studies demonstrated that participants in left-to-right writing cultures showed a strong preference to associate the past with left space and the future with right space. The present studies investigated whether these spatial associations involved body-part-centered or extracorporal space. In Experiment 1, participants categorized words as referring to the past or the future by pressing button on the left with the left hand or a button on the right with the right hand. In Experiments 2 and 3, participants crossed their hands and were instructed to categorize words by pressing the left or right buttons (Experiment 2) or by moving their left or right hand (Experiment 3). Irrespective of the relative spatial positions of the response buttons, past words were more quickly categorized with the left hand and future words with the right hand. In addition, reaction times were slower in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1, whereas there was no significant difference between Experiments 1 and 3. These results suggest that temporal concepts such as past and future are more strongly associated with embodied space than visual space.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the contents of meta-cognitive beliefs about thought suppression and to investigate the relationship between these beliefs and the paradoxical effects of thought suppression. In Study 1, we developed a scale measuring the endorsement of meta-cognitive beliefs about thought suppression. This measure, the Meta-cognitive Beliefs about Thought Suppression Questionnaire (BTQ), has four subscales: Distraction, Paradoxical Effect, Regret, and Promotion of Concentration. In Study 2 and Study 3, the BTQ showed sufficient criterion-related validity and test-retest reliability. In Study 4, we conducted an experiment to investigate the relationship between meta-cognitive beliefs about thought suppression and its paradoxical effects. Results showed that the Paradoxical Effect subscale score significantly predicted the number of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression. The development process of meta-cognitive beliefs about thought suppression and implications for research about cognitive control are discussed.
Two studies were conducted to examine the factorial and construct validity of the Japanese Burnout Scale which was designed to measure hypothesized aspects of the burnout syndrome among public service workers in a variety of samples. The sample in study 1 consisted of 389 public service workers, 350 non-public service workers, and 3,410 non-service workers. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed a hypothesized three-factor structure for both public and non-public service workers, which was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. The sample in study 2 consisted of the following car dealer employees: 349 sales staff, 152 engineering staff, and 288 clerical staff. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed a hypothesized three-factor structure only in the sales staff group, which was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. Moreover, the construct validity of the scale was supported by the job demand-control model (Karasek, 1979). The Japanese Burnout Scale may serve as a useful measure of burnout syndrome among service workers in future research.
Interview and questionnaire surveys were conducted with bus drivers in Japan, with the goal of developing an educational program for better control of emotions among bus drivers. The interviews aimed at identifying stressors and ways in which stress negatively influenced bus services. The questionnaire survey, which was being developed as a self-diagnosis tool, further provided bus drivers with the opportunity to understand their own emotional tendencies. Factor analysis identified six factors underlying work-related stress: anger at unsafe behaviours of nearby road users, irritation caused by complaints from passengers, time pressures, anxiety about traffic accidents, impatience with slow passengers, and resentment of bad-mannered passengers. The influence of stress on the drivers comprised four factors: cognitive failure, sullen behaviour, abrupt acceleration/deceleration, and aggressive driving. Moreover, drivers with lower stress were relatively older and more experienced. Based on these results, educational materials were proposed with the aim of enhancing bus drivers’ understanding of their emotional processes and coping skills.
The impulsivity of people with tic disorders has been a recent focus of attention. This study aimed to investigate this phenomenon in people with and without tics in a non-clinical setting, focusing on the subjective urge experienced prior to impulsive behavior. In Study 1, we created a scale to measure the strength of subjective urges. This scale, which was found to comprise three subscales, had high internal consistency and high generalizability. In Study 2, using the scale developed in Study 1, we showed that people with tics felt stronger subjective urges than people without tics. This suggests that the relation between tics and impulsivity exists not only among people in clinical settings but also in non-clinical settings. Also, subjective urges significantly affect the severity of depression and this effect was pronounced in people with tics in this study. Thus, we should consider the presence or absence of tics when we discuss impulsivity, in particular the effect of subjective urges on depression.
The aim of this study was to investigate the link between response styles and depression in university students. Ninety-two university students participated in a questionnaire survey, with a follow-up survey administered 4 weeks later. Structural equation modeling was conducted with analysis of moment structures. The model describing the causal relation from response style to depression fit the data best. These results indicate that the likelihood of future depression is increased by negative rumination response and decreased by distraction response for mood changing.
Previous studies demonstrated that observing another person’s grasp action modulated the observer’s attention to the object in a manner congruent with another person’s action goal. These studies suggest that this grasp-cueing effect results from representation of the observer’s understanding of action intention in the mirror neuron system. This system serves as the neural mechanism underlying action-oriented goals, regardless of whether they are those of the observer or others. The present study examined whether the grasp-cueing effect emerged even when a grasp action was observed from an egocentric (observer’s own) perspective. Reaction times were faster when the target was presented over the object that was congruent with the action goal implied by the size of the hand aperture. This indicated that the grasp-cueing effect occurred when the stimulus was observed from an egocentric perspective, consistent with the view that this effect resulted from the observer’s understanding of action intention as represented in the mirror neuron system.
This study aimed to investigate the generality of conflict adaptation associated with block-wise conflict frequency between two types of stimulus scripts (Kanji and Hiragana). To this end, we examined whether the modulation of the compatibility effect with one type of script depending on block-wise conflict frequency (75% versus 25%) generalized to the other type of script whose block-wise conflict frequency was kept constant (50%), using the Spatial Stroop task. In Experiment 1, 16 participants were required to identify the target orientation (up or down) presented in the upper or lower visual-field. The results showed that block-wise conflict adaptation with one type of stimulus script generalized to the other. The procedure in Experiment 2 was the same as that in Experiment 1, except that the presentation location differed between the two types of stimulus scripts. We did not find a generalization from one script to the other. These results suggest that presentation location is a critical factor contributing to the generality of block-wise conflict adaptation.