Many researchers have suggested team processes that enhance team performance. However, past team process models were based on crew team, whose all team members perform an indivisible temporary task. These models may be inapplicable business teams, whose individual members perform middle- and long-term tasks assigned to individual members. This study modified the teamwork model of Dickinson and McIntyre (1997) and aimed to demonstrate a whole team process that enhances the performance of business teams. We surveyed five companies (member N = 1,400, team N = 161) and investigated team-level processes. Results showed that there were two sides of team processes: “communication” and “collaboration to achieve a goal.” Team processes in which communication enhanced collaboration improved team performance with regard to all aspects of the quantitative objective index (e.g. current income and number of sales), supervisor rating, and self-rating measurements. On the basis of these results, we discuss the entire process by which teamwork enhances team performance in business organizations.
In this study, we examined the relationships among higher brain function, trust or distrust, and gullibility in middle-aged and elderly people. It has been pointed out that the trust can be regarded the psychological frame of automatic processing in decision-making. The participants were 309 rural community dwellers (127 males and 182 females) whose mean age was 64.9 years old (SD = 9.9). The trust scale of Amagai (1997) and the Nagoya University Cognitive Assessment Battery were used to measure sense of trust and higher brain function, respectively. Gullibility was measured by self-report using two items. Correlation analyses showed that higher brain function positively correlated with degree of trust in others and negatively correlated with distrust. However, regression analysis demonstrated that only the relationship between category fluency and distrust was significant. Furthermore, the degree of distrust positively correlated with gullibility.
The Dimensions of Identity Development Scale (DIDS) provides a new method of researching identity development based on the dual-process model pertaining to lifespan development. This study developed and evaluated the Japanese version of this scale (DIDS-J). Two surveys of undergraduate and high school students showed that the DIDS-J had good reliability and validity and that it consisted of 25 items with five factors: commitment making, identity with commitment, exploration in breadth, exploration in depth, and ruminative exploration. Through cluster analysis of the DIDS-J, five identity statuses were found that were not clearly distinguished by previous scales: foreclosure, achievement, searching moratorium, diffused diffusion, and carefree diffusion. Research using the DIDS-J has two advantages: it enables us to examine the process of identity development among adolescents with a wider age range, and to compare results cross-culturally in future research. The trial investigations compared student scores with those from previous research in Western cultures, demonstrating that DIDS-J may lead to further explanations of identity development.
In attitude measurement and sensory tests, the unfolding model is typically used. In this model, response probability is formulated by the distance between the person and the stimulus. In this study, we proposed an unfolding item response model using best-worst scaling (BWU model), in which a person chooses the best and worst stimulus among repeatedly presented subsets of stimuli. We also formulated an unfolding model using best scaling (BU model), and compared the accuracy of estimates between the BU and BWU models. A simulation experiment showed that the BWU model performed much better than the BU model in terms of bias and root mean square errors of estimates. With reference to Usami (2011), the proposed models were applied to actual data to measure attitudes toward tardiness. Results indicated high similarity between stimuli estimates generated with the proposed models and those of Usami (2011).
The current study used video clips of bowing actions depicted by three-dimensional computer graphics. The bend angle (15° and 45°) and duration of the bent posture (0–4.5 seconds) were varied. In the first experiment, the participants rated their subjective impressions of the bowing actions. The bowing actions that were made at a 45° angle and held for more than 1 second were rated as courteous. Bowing motions held for shorter durations were rated as smooth. In the second experiment, the participants evaluated whether a bowing action was appropriate for a specific social context. The participants judged 15°-angle bowing of no / very short duration appropriate for greeting, 45°-angle bowing of no / short duration appropriate for gratitude, and 45°-angle bowing for about 2 seconds appropriate for an apology. The results of these two experiments are discussed in terms of how angle and duration influence the impressions and evaluations of the appropriateness of a bowing action.
We developed the 33-item Emotion and Arousal Checklist (EACL), which consisted of five subscales to assess emotions (Fear, Anger, Sadness, Disgust, and Happiness) and four subscales to assess arousal (Energetic arousal +, Energetic arousal −, Tense arousal +, and Tense arousal −). This checklist was developed to assess psychological state, both at a given moment and during the past week. In Study 1, confirmatory factor analyses identified nine subscales, whose internal consistency was indicated by their reliability. In Study 2, the EACL’s validity was demonstrated by its correlation with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Multiple Mood Scale, General Arousal Checklist, Japanese UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist, and Profile of Mood States. In Study 3, changes caused by tasks that involved either reading emotion-inducing articles or performing a calculation indicated the validity of the EACL for measuring psychological state at a given moment. Further, the test-retest reliability of the EACL for assessing psychological state during the past week was confirmed. These studies confirmed the reliability and the validity of the EACL.
Fund-raising activities on behalf of victims of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake during the year after the earthquake were investigated in residents of the South Kanto area (N = 749), which is adjacent to the disaster area. The percentage of people that raised funds was 67.4%. We investigated the effects of the following on fund-raising activities: demographic variables (sex, age, and educational background), trait empathy (empathic concern, perspective taking, and personal distress), former experience with fund-raising activities, effects of similarity to victims (e.g., experienced inconveniences because of the disaster, or had problems returning home), and psychological closeness to victims (e.g., have family members or acquaintances that suffered from the disaster, or that once lived in the disaster area). The results indicated that fund-raising activities were affected by former experience with fund-raising, similarity to victims, psychological closeness to victims, empathic concern, and being female. The relationship between fund-raising activities for victims and empathy are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine how women reacted to the approach of an unknown man in town. 105 female Japanese undergraduates participated in the pilot survey. This survey identified six types of judgments made by women when they were approached by an unknown man in town. To investigate the relation between these six types of judgments and the reaction of women to an unknown man, 290 female Japanese undergraduates participated in the main study. The results showed that judgments concerning risks and situation, as well as personality, intentions, and appearance of an unknown man were related to the reactions of women. The importance of judgments about personality of an unknown man and about risk in initiating relationships with males not belonging to the females’ social network are discussed.
Previous studies of change blindness have examined the effect of temporal factors (e.g., blank duration) on attention in change detection. This study examined the effect of spatial factors (i.e., whether the locations of original and changed objects are the same or different) on attention in change detection, using a shift-contingent change blindness task. We used a flicker paradigm in which the location of a to-be-judged target image was manipulated (shift, no-shift). In shift conditions, the image of an array of objects was spatially shifted so that all objects appeared in new locations; in no-shift conditions, all object images of an array appeared at the same location. The presence of visual stimuli (dots) in the blank display between the two images was manipulated (dot, no-dot) under the assumption that abrupt onsets of these stimuli would capture attention. Results indicated that change detection performance was improved by exogenous attentional capture in the shift condition. Thus, we suggest that attention can play an important role in change detection during shift-contingent change blindness.