This study examined the causal relationships between assertiveness and both internal and external adjustment in children. Elementary school children in grades four through six (N = 284) participated in the study, which used a short-term longitudinal design. The children completed questionnaires twice during a 6-months period. They responded to assertiveness questionnaires that included two components: “self-expression” and “consideration of others”. They also completed a self-esteem scale as an index of internal adjustment, and the Class Life Satisfaction scale as an index of external adjustment. There was a positive causative relationship between “self-expression” and internal adjustment and between “consideration for others” and external adjustment. In addition, the effects on adjustment varied according to the type of assertiveness. Cluster analysis and MANOVA indicated that the group with high “self-expression” and “consideration for others” had high internal and external adjustment, while the children with poor assertiveness showed the lowest degree of adaptivity.
Many studies have demonstrated that individuals with social anxiety interpret ambiguous social situations negatively. It is, however, not clear whether the interpretation bias discriminatively contributes to social anxiety in comparison with depressive automatic thoughts. The present study investigated the effects of negative interpretation bias and automatic thoughts on social anxiety. The Social Intent Interpretation Questionnaire, which measures the tendency to interpret ambiguous social events as implying other’s rejective intents, the short Japanese version of the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire-Revised, and the Anthropophobic Tendency Scale were administered to 317 university students. Covariance structure analysis indicated that both rejective intent interpretation bias and negative automatic thoughts contributed to mental distress in social situations mediated by a sense of powerlessness and excessive concern about self and others in social situations. Positive automatic thoughts reduced mental distress. These results indicate the importance of interpretation bias and negative automatic thoughts in the development and maintenance of social anxiety. Implications for understanding of the cognitive features of social anxiety were discussed.
The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to create an index for a behavioral linkage analysis of serial sex crimes, and second, to construct a predictive model for the analysis. Data on 720 sex crimes (rape, indecent assault) committed by 360 offenders arrested between 1993 and 2005 throughout Japan were collected. The following seven behaviors were examined during a series of analyses aimed at illustrating the effectiveness of crime linkage in serial sex crimes: victim age group, area type, publicness of offense site, weapon, time, contact method, and day of the week. The results indicated that six of the seven behaviors (excluding “day of the week”) significantly distinguished between linked and unlinked crime pairs. Under a logistic regression of these six variables, which were dichotomously coded in terms of the concordance or discordance between each pair of incidents, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.85 (95% CI = 0.82–0.87), indicating a high level of discriminative accuracy in identifying disparate sex crimes committed by the same person.
This study examined the associations between the complexity of an individual’s primary lifetime occupation and his or her late-life memory and reasoning performance, using data from 824 community-dwelling participants aged 69–72 years. The complexity of work with data, people, and things was evaluated based on the Japanese job complexity score. The associations between occupational complexity and participant’s memory and reasoning abilities were examined in multiple regression analyses. An association was found between more complex work with people and higher memory performance, as well as between more complex work with data and higher reasoning performance, after having controlled for gender, school records, and education. Further, an interaction effect was observed between gender and complexity of work with data in relation to reasoning performance: work involving a high degree of complexity with data was associated with high reasoning performance in men. These findings suggest the need to consider late-life cognitive functioning within the context of adulthood experiences, specifically those related to occupation and gender.
Few researches have delineated how adolescents and parents view conflict in familial settings in Japan. Seventh and eighth grade junior high school students (n = 63) and parents (n = 68) were asked to complete a questionnaire using four hypothetical stories to investigate their judgments and reasoning about parent–child situations. Vignettes described health management, household chores, and two situations involving personal choice (clothes and friends) situations. Participants responded differently to personal, prudential, and conventional conflict. Parental acceptance of the child’s demands and discretion and the child’s tendency to reject parental authority were significantly higher for personal than for conventional or prudential conflict, and for conventional than for prudential conflict. Children rejected parental authority more than adults rejected parental authority when the child’s choice was central to the child’s identity; on the other hand, children accepted parents’ conventional demands more often than adults accepted parents’ conventional demands. These results suggest that early adolescents assert their rights when they judge the situation to be in the personal domain.
Previous research has suggested that Western European individuals exhibit negative attitudes toward older adults under pathogen threat. The present study investigated whether Japanese individuals exhibited ageism when pathogen threat was salient. Additionally, the study determined whether pathogen threat would have less of an impact on ageism among individuals with experience living with older adults. Study 1 showed that when pathogen threat was chronically and contextually salient, Japanese university students who had no experience living with older adults exhibited ageism, while those with such experience did not. Study 2 showed similar findings among Japanese nursing students. We argue that familiarity with older adults is essential for diminishing ageism in the event of a pathogen threat.
The present study investigated principles of phonological planning, a common serial ordering mechanism for speech production and phonological short-term memory. Nakayama and Saito (2014) have investigated the principles by using a speech-error induction technique, in which participants were exposed to an auditory distractor word immediately before an utterance of a target word. They demonstrated within-word adjacent mora exchanges and serial position effects on error rates. These findings support, respectively, the temporal distance and the edge principles at a within-word level. As this previous study induced errors using word distractors created by exchanging adjacent morae in the target words, it is possible that the speech errors are expressions of lexical intrusions reflecting interactive activation of phonological and lexical/semantic representations. To eliminate this possibility, the present study used nonword distractors that had no lexical or semantic representations. This approach successfully replicated the error patterns identified in the abovementioned study, further confirming that the temporal distance and edge principles are organizing precepts in phonological planning.
In the present study, we newly developed a kanji writing subtest of ATLAN (Adaptive Tests for Language Abilities), which is based on item response theory (Takahashi & Nakamura, 2009; Takahashi, Otomo, & Nakamura, 2012) and can be administered via the Internet. In Study 1, we evaluated two parameters, difficulty and discrimination, of 244 kanji characters based on the results of 1,306 children from 2nd to 9th grade. In Study 2, we analyzed kanji reading and writing subtests of 283 children from 3rd to 6th grade, including their error patterns and stroke order while writing kanji. The results of hierarchical regression analysis showed that more than 60% of the variance of kanji writing is explained by grade, kanji reading, and accuracy of forms and stroke order while writing kanji. The practical significance of the test is discussed.
The survival processing effect is a robust memory phenomenon of memory whereby encouraging participants to judge words for relevance to a survival situation produces better recall than other processing tasks such as semantic or self-reference tasks (Nairne, Thompson, & Pandeirada, 2007). The present study separated memory performance into recollection and familiarity, and estimated the contribution of these two factors to the survival processing effect as adaptive memory by using a recognition test based on the dual-process signal detection model. This study also examined the long-term persistence of the effect by delay manipulation (immediate, after a week, after five weeks) of the recognition test. Under delayed conditions (after a week and five weeks), survival processing advantage occurred on recollection, but semantic processing had no effect. In contrast, for familiarity, there was no significant difference between survival and semantic processing. These findings suggest that the survival processing effect mainly relies on recollection.