In this experimental study, the effects of cognitive load on reckless gambling were investigated among Japanese undergraduates. Changes in the participants’ emotional states and perceived luck while gambling were also investigated. Participants (23 males and 21 females) performed the Game of Dice Task (GDT) consisting of 18 trials; their emotional states and perceived luck were assessed before the first trial and after subsequent trial. Participants in the experimental group were asked to memorize words while playing the GDT, whereas those in the control group were not required to do so. Results indicate that the experimental group gambled more recklessly than the control group while performing the GDT. Furthermore, participants in the experimental group experienced more positive emotions and better perceived luck than the control group. These results suggest that individuals with cognitive load while gambling are likely to interpret their emotional states and perceived luck more favorably and to overestimate the probability of winning. Therefore, these individuals are prone to gambling recklessly.
This study aimed at examining whether optimism and pessimism, mediated by emotions and coping styles, affects mental and physical health. We contrasted Japanese college students (n = 176, M (age) = 19.67, SD =1.00) with Chinese college students (n = 199, M (age) = 20.45, SD = 2.04), to explore cultural differences. A questionnaire was administered twice, two weeks apart, to the two groups of participants. Results suggested that optimism led to more positive emotions in Chinese participants, which had a positive effect on positive reinterpretation that benefited health, whereas pessimism led to more negative emotions, which had a negative effect on positive reinterpretation and resulted in impaired health. Due to the differences in the self-improvement motivation between Chinese and Japanese students, the influence of pessimism on coping styles is different. Compared to Chinese students, Japanese students had more interdependence of self with others and self-improvement motivation. Hence even when Japanese students score high in pessimism, that may not influence individual approaches to goals.
Personality disorders (PDs) are considered mental disorders due to a pathology of self (Lynum et al., 2008). In order to capture the multi-levels of self-concept, we investigated both explicit and implicit self-esteem. This study aimed to understand the relationships among borderline, narcissistic, and avoidant PDs and the discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Eighty-five undergraduates and graduates completed a questionnaire and self-esteem implicit association test measuring implicit self-esteem. The questionnaire included items about PDs and explicit self-esteem. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that borderline and avoidant PDs could be explained by a large discrepancy between two levels of self-esteem when implicit self-esteem is relatively higher than explicit self-esteem. On the other hand, narcissistic PD was not related to each level of self-esteem individually or the discrepancy between these self-esteems. These results suggest that borderline and avoidant PDs are related to discrepancies among multi self-concepts, but narcissistic PD cannot be explained by discrepancies in self-esteem.
In studies of motivational regulation, motivational regulation strategies to maintain motivation have been examined while the strategies to initiate motivation have been overlooked. In this study, motivational regulation strategies for initiating motivation (motivation initiating strategies) were examined and the Motivation Initiating Strategy Scale was developed. In study 1, based on open-ended questionnaire to collect the strategies that learners usually use, items were selected for the scale. Using exploratory factor analysis, 5 motivation initiating strategies subscales were extracted. In study 2, the validity of the scale was examined by confirmatory factor analysis and correlations and partial correlations with intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, achievement goal and reliability were examined by test-retest correlations and internal consistencies for subscales. Both the validity and reliability were demonstrated in order to measure motivation initiating strategies. The results of this study suggest that motivation initiating strategies contain some of the same strategies as motivation maintaining strategies, and indicate the possibility that the structures and roles in the motivational regulation of the initiating and maintaining strategies are different.
This study aimed to develop the Japanese version of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire in a test situation and to examine its reliability and validity. In a test situation, undergraduate students (N = 369) completed a questionnaire including the Achievement Emotions Scale (AES) that contains 8 sub-scales: enjoyment, hope, pride, relief, angry, anxiety, shame, and hopelessness. The validity of AES was evaluated using academic control, self-efficacy, task-value, the Japanese version of Positive and Negative Affect Schedule scale, motivational style, learning strategies, and test scores (n = 191). The component structures of AES were tested among three models for each of the 8 sub-scales through Structural Equation Modeling. Results suggest that for most scales, hierarchical models were superior for fit indexes, and reliability was confirmed. Further, positive achievement emotions were positively related to academic control, self-efficacy, positive affect, intrinsic regulation, metacognitive strategies, and deep-processing strategies, while negative achievement emotions were positively related to negative affect, introjected regulation, and external regulation. These results were confirmed to be consistent with previous studies, and indicated new research directions.
The current research examined the moderating role of beliefs in group interdependence on effects of negative meta-stereotypes. The effects of meta-stereotypes among Japanese participants were explored by examining responses toward a fictitious Korean defendant (Study 1), or a real political agenda between Korea and Japan (Study 2), after being exposed to negative views that Koreans might have of Japanese. In addition, the extent to which participants believed in group interdependence between the nations was measured. The results of the two experiments revealed that effects of negative meta-stereotypes were moderated by beliefs in group interdependence. The individuals with higher beliefs in group interdependence responded more favorably toward the outgroup when faced with negative meta-stereotypes, perhaps in an attempt to disconfirm the negative meta-stereotypes. On the other hand, the individuals with lower beliefs in group interdependence reciprocated with unfavorable responses when faced with negative meta-stereotypes.
This study examined differences in subjective well-being between parents and non-parents in middle age. An online survey was conducted with people from 45- to 60- years of age (N = 558). The subjective well-being scores were not significantly different between the above two groups. Multi-regression analysis suggested that the determinants affecting participants varied according to their gender and the presence of child. While bilateral activities as a married couple influenced their subjective well-beings, other influential factors included household income, social activities for women with a child, the involvement with future generation in childless women, and household income in men, regardless of parental status. The results for women suggest that generativity might play a key role in subjective well-being of the middle-aged women with no children as well as those with a child.
Dyadic relationships play a pivotal role in mental health and well-being. Although individual-level factors such as self-esteem and attachment style have been widely studied, the psychological constructs shared and emerging in dyadic relationships have not been explored adequately. This article introduces a novel approach called “individual-dyad dynamics” for understanding mental health and well-being, and provides an overview of dyadic data analysis methods. The approach examines processes involved in dyadic relationships at both the individual and dyad level. Utilizing the tenets of social cognitive theory and social capital theory, we propose that shared relational efficacy, which refers to two individuals having common efficacy expectations and subjectively experiencing commonality in expectations, is distinguishable from perceived relational efficacy. The article discusses the nature of shared relational efficacy from both theoretical (i.e., self-efficacy and shared reality) and analytical (i.e., multilevel structural equation modeling) perspectives. We summarize past empirical research providing preliminary support for this approach and outline implications and future directions regarding dyadic relationship studies.