This study examined the relationship between meaning making and rumination regarding stressful events. We focused on two facets of rumination: intrusive and deliberate. Participants (N = 121) completed a questionnaire about a stressful event in their life that assessed the possibility of preventing the event, probability of the event occurring, perceived threat of the event, and meaning making. They also completed scales that assessed intrusive and deliberate ruminations about the event, posttraumatic growth after the event, as well as dispositions of self-rumination and self-reflection, and executive function. The results revealed that disposition of self-reflection was positively correlated with deliberate rumination about the event. Furthermore, deliberate rumination at the time of the experience was positively correlated with current positive meaning making, which was associated with current posttraumatic growth. Additionally, current intrusive rumination promoted current negative meaning making, but intrusive rumination at the time of the experience did not. Thus, this study suggests the important role of both intrusive and deliberate ruminations in the process of meaning making and several issues for future research.
The present study examined the association between approach-avoidance commitment, emotional experiences in romantic relationships, and mental health. It was hypothesized that the association between avoidance commitment and emotional experiences was moderated by approach commitment. Two hundred and three undergraduates who were involved in romantic relationships participated in a questionnaire survey. Results revealed that approach commitment was associated with greater positive emotion and less negative emotion, and these emotional experiences were associated with higher mental health. On the other hand, the association between avoidance commitment and emotional experiences was moderated by approach commitment. That is, only when approach commitment was weak, avoidance commitment was associated with fewer positive emotions and greater negative emotions, and that these emotional experiences were associated with lower mental health. These results reveal that approach-avoidance commitment was associated with mental health via emotional experiences in romantic relationships, and verified Johnson’s (1999) and Levinger’s (1999) theoretical argument.
The purpose of this study is to propose a method of factor analysis for analyzing contingency tables developed from the data of unlimited multiple-choice questions.This method assumes that the element of each cell of the contingency table has a binominal distribution and a factor analysis model is applied to the logit of the selection probability. Scree plot and WAIC are used to decide the number of factors, and the standardized residual, the standardized difference between the sample, and the proportion ratio, is used to select items.The proposed method was applied to real product impression research data on advertised chips and energy drinks. Since the results of the analysis showed that this method could be used in conjunction with conventional factor analysis model, and extracted factors were fully interpretable, and suggests the usefulness of the proposed method in the study of psychology using unlimited multiple-choice questions.
This research examined the effects of planning and executive functions on young children’s (ages 3-to 5-years) strategies in changing scripts. Young children (N = 77) performed a script task (doll task), three executive function tasks (DCCS, red/blue task, and nine box task), a planning task, and a receptive vocabulary task. In the doll task, young children first enacted a “changing clothes” script, and then faced a situation in which some elements of the script were inappropriate. They needed to enact a script by compensating inappropriate items for the other script items or by changing to the other script in advance. The results showed that shifting, a factor of executive function, had a positive influence on whether young children could compensate inappropriate items. In addition, planning was also an important factor that helped children to change to the other script in advance. These findings suggest that shifting and planning play different roles in using the two strategies appropriately when young children enact scripts in unexpected situations.
Emotional competence has recently become a widespread concern in schools and workplaces, both which deeply involve laypersons. While academic researchers have discussed the status of emotional competence compared to the traditional intelligence, it is very important to elucidate how laypersons regard emotional competence compared to traditional intelligence as well. The present study investigated the position of emotional competence in the multiple intelligences theory by assessing laypersons’ self-estimates of their abilities and their rating of the importance of emotional competence for thriving in society. Participants (N = 584) answered a questionnaire online. Results showed that laypersons regarded emotional competence as a distinct construct, and most strongly related it to personal intelligence. Moreover, their ratings of the importance of emotional competence and personal intelligence for thriving in society were higher than that of traditional intelligence.
This study developed a scale to measure the respect-related emotional traits (the Trait Respect-Related Emotions Scale) for late adolescence and examined the reliability and validity. In study 1, 368 university students completed the items of the Trait Respect-Related Emotions Scale and other scales of theoretically important personality constructs including adult attachment style, the “Big Five,” self-esteem, and two types of narcissistic personality. Factor analysis indicated that there are three factors of trait respect-related emotions: (a) trait (prototypical) respect; (b) trait idolatry (worship and adoration); and (c) trait awe. The three traits associated differentially with the daily experience (frequency) of the five basic respect-related emotions (prototypical respect, idolatry, awe, admiration, and wonder), and other constructs. In Study 2, a test–retest correlation of the new scale with 60 university students indicated good reliability. Both studies generally supported the reliability and validity of the new scale. These findings suggest that, at least in late adolescence, there are large individual differences in respect-related emotion experiences and the trait of respect should be considered as multi-dimensional structure.
The present study revised a psycho-educational program designed to prevent depression (Oikawa & Sakamoto, 2007) and to enhance interpersonal coping resources for depression. The effects of the revised program on female undergraduates were examined. One hundred and seventy two undergraduates were assigned either to an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group participated in the revised program for ten weeks as part of a psychological class, while the control group did not. All participants were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire about self-efficacy for cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal coping for depression, the state of their mental health, and perceived social support from their family and friends before and after the program. The experimental group’s ratings and responses indicated that the program were interesting and meaningful. Moreover, self-efficacy for coping with depression and perceived support from friends at the post intervention were significantly increased in the experimental group compared with the control group. These results suggest the effectiveness of the revised program for increasing interpersonal coping resources.
Volpi (2004) pointed out that Alessandro Valignano, a 16th century Christian missionary, had considered the Japanese extreme collectivists. According to Volpi, his remark was based on Valignano’s reports (1583, 1592) edited by Alvares-Taladriz (1954). However, it is highly questionable whether Volpi examined these texts directly because the information about them provided by Volpi involved many serious errors. A thorough inspection of Valignano’s translated reports found no mention of Japanese collectivism. On the contrary, he had actually reported exceedingly individualistic behaviors of Japanese warriors. Such behaviors are consistent with what is widely known about the 16th century Civil Wars in Japan. It has thus turned out that no reliable evidence is present for the alleged observation by Valignano.
Based on the recently developed Gitaigo personality scale (Komatsu, Sakai, Nishioka, & Mukoyama, 2012), we investigated the relationship between perceived personality and leading/following roles in close friend dyads. Primary participants rated their own and one of their close friend’s personality with Gitaigo personality scale. They also described who takes the role of leader in the relationship with the friend they rated. When one in the pair is reported as leader, the other is considered as follower. Subsidiary participants who were cited as close friends rated their own personality. Our analysis of the 215 pairs showed that the participants taking the role of follower were rated higher in the traits of Cowardliness and Mildness by the primary participants. Regarding Mildness, this tendency was also clear in subsidiary participants’ self-ratings. Primary participants rated the Preciseness and Candidness of their friends lower if their friend was considered a follower. Gitaigo personality scale describes the perceived personality well, at least for several traits.
This study used structural equation modeling to investigate directional relationships between coping with interpersonal stress and received support. One hundred and seventy-seven undergraduates who had experienced interpersonal stress during the past month answered questions about coping with interpersonal stress and received support. Structural equation modeling based on third-order moment structures was used to examine the directionality of the relationship between these two variables. The results revealed interactive associations between distancing and emotional support. Received support affected coping with interpersonal stress in terms of active coping, planning and monitoring, and positive reappraisal. These results suggest that received support functions as a coping resource.
Previous studies have reported that lesions of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in rats induce impulsive choices in delayed reinforcement tasks.However, some studies have suggested that the OFC is not related to impulsivity but instead to compulsivity.In this study, we investigated the effects of OFC lesions on choice in a T-maze.First, 14 rats were trained to discriminate spatially between a high-reward arm with a delay of 15 seconds and a low-reward arm without a delay.The high-reward arm contained 10 food pellets, whereas the low-reward arm contained only one pellet.In the presurgery test, all rats chose the high-reward arm in most trials.In the postsurgery test, both OFC lesioned (n = 7) and control (sham-lesioned and intact; n = 7) rats continued to choose the high-reward arm in most trials.Following the postsurgery test, the high- and low-reward arms were reversed.In the reversal test, OFC lesioned rats made significantly fewer high-reward choices than did control rats.These results indicate that OFC lesions induced compulsive choices rather than impulsive choices.