The present studies examined what kinds of beliefs are typically held about people with depression based on data from samples of Japanese university students. Study 1a utilized text describing people with depression that was divided into categories, and examined which categories were most frequently described. In Study 1b, participants rated how much they agreed with the beliefs categorized in Study 1a. A similar approach was taken in Study 2a (qualitative) and 2b (quantitative), in order to examine prototypic negative beliefs. Results from Study 1a and 1b indicated that prototypic beliefs were the “serious and working too hard” belief in regard to characteristics of people with depression, and the “taking too much things on oneself” belief related to personal responsibility. Results from 2a and 2b indicated that prototypic negative beliefs were the “gloomy” belief in regard to characteristics of people with depression, and the “mental weakness” belief related to personal responsibility. Implications for research on stigma toward people with depression are discussed.
This study examined the action tendencies of respect-related emotions in Japanese university students. Participants (n = 405) randomly received a questionnaire about one of six respect-related emotions: (a) keiai (respect mingled with mild love); (b) shinsui (idolatry, worship, and adoration); (c) ifu (awe mingled with fear); (d) kanshin (admiration); (e) kyotan (wonder); and (f) sonkei (respect proper) and were asked to recall a situation they felt the emotion. Next, they rated how much they felt like doing the respect-related (intrapersonal or interpersonal) actions in the situation. Statistical analysis revealed several action tendencies of respect-related emotions, however, the degree of each differed between the prototypical episodes of the emotions (a)–(e). The action tendency pattern of sonkei was most similar to that of keiai, therefore keiai could be considered as the prototypical feeling of sonkei in university students. Furthermore, almost all the respect-related emotions tended to strongly motivate willingness for self-correction and improvement. These findings suggest that respect-related emotions play an important role in self-improvement and building good relationships with superiors, at least in late adolescence.
We tested possible intrapersonal effects of a sigh as a psychological “resetter/rebooter.” Fifty-eight undergraduates were randomly assigned to a sigh or a normal exhalation (control) group. We asked participants on each task to model the experimenter demonstrating how to exhale air into a small plastic bag for breathing manipulation under the pretext that we were interested in the exhaled gas in stressful situations. Results revealed that the sigh group did not experience more relief (as shown by prolonged reaction time) after exposure to threat stimuli, but showed more persistence on a highly-difficult puzzle task (p = .03, d = .62) and more willingness to continue working on a monotonous task (p < .10, d = .48), than the normal exhalation group. A sigh may have an adaptive function to motivate further work; although it may not induce relief — suggesting that a “sigh of refresh” is a voluntary but a “sigh of relief” is an involuntary response.
Self-control refers to the ability to execute goal-oriented behavior despite the presence of temptation(s) to do otherwise. Since self-control has a wide-range impact on our daily lives, it is of critical importance to assess individual differences of self-control with a highly reliable and valid, yet simple, measure. Toward this end, three studies were conducted to test reliability and validity of the Japanese-translated version of Brief Self-Control Scale (Tangney, Baumeister, & Boone, 2004). The scale showed good internal consistency (Study 1) and retest reliability (Study 2). The total score of the scale was correlated with the self-reported indices of self-control (e.g., daily experience of ego-depletion, study hours) and performance in the Stop Signal Task (Study 3), indicating its high converging validity.
The purpose of the present study was to examine intention for self-change across the life span using measures of self-esteem, frequency of self-reflection, and concern about self-change. We hypothesized that: (a) Intention for self-change decreases with age because of increased self-esteem, decreased self-reflection and concern about self-change, and (b) Associations among self-esteem, frequency of self-reflection, and intention for self-change are mediated by concern about self-change. Participants (N = 997; age range, 15 to 69 yrs) completed an internet survey. ANOVA results suggested that intention for self-change, concern about self-change, and frequency of self-reflection decreased with age, and that self-esteem scores increased with age. Simultaneous analysis of multiple age groups showed that for all groups of low self-esteem and frequent self-reflection promoted intention for self-change and that there were significant mediating effects for concern about self-change. Therefore, these findings supported our research hypotheses.
The Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) task is a widely used measure for the development of executive function during early childhood.In this task, children are asked to sort cards according to one rule (e.g., color) during preswitch phases, after which they are asked to sort cards according to another rule (e.g., shape) during the postswitch phases. A computer version of the DCCS was needed to standardize the test material, but a previous study showed that children showed more difficulty in a computer version with a mouse device than the standard card version. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of a computer version with a touch panel and compared performance with the standard card version. Three- and 4-year-old children were given the card version and computer version of the DCCS tasks. The results revealed that children showed similar performance during the preswitch and postswitch phases both in the computer version and in the card version. The results suggest that both versions of the task assessed the same underlying cognitive processes.
This study examined the internal and external validity of the Japanese version of the Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI: Hiruma, 2000), which was originally developed by Sternberg and Wagner (1991) based on the framework of Sternberg’s (1988) theory of mental self-government. The term “thinking style” refers to the concept that individuals differ in how they organize, direct, and manage their own thinking activities. We administered the Japanese version of the TSI to Japanese participants (N = 655: Age range 20—84 years). The results of item analysis, reliability analysis, and factor analysis were consistent with the general ideas of the theory. In addition, there were significant relationships between certain thinking styles and 3 participant characteristics: age, gender, and working arrangement. Furthermore, some thinking styles were positively correlated with social skill. Implications of these results for the nature of Japanese thinking styles are discussed.
This study aimed to investigate the relations between CERQ and depression, and anxiety, and also aimed to reveal the characteristics of a Japanese sample through meta-analysis. The results showed that self-blame, acceptance, rumination, catastrophizing, and blaming others had significantly positive correlations with both depression and anxiety, whereas positive refocusing, refocus on planning, positive reappraisal, and putting into perspective had significantly negative correlations with both variables. Moreover, when comparing the correlation coefficients of the Japanese samples and the combined value, correlations between depression and positive reappraisal were significantly larger than the combined value. On the other hand, regarding the correlation coefficients of depression and putting into perspective, the combined value was larger than the value of Japanese samples. In addition, compared to the combined value, the Japanese sample’s positive correlation between anxiety and rumination, and negative correlation between anxiety and positive reappraisal were larger.
People feel uncomfortable when someone else comes spatially near and thus encroaches on their personal space (PS). Although many social psychologists have explored characteristics of PS of/between/among individuals so far, there is currently no empirical research on whether the PS of individuals expands into space surrounding their belongings (or objects) that are away from their body. This study measured the spatial distance between bags which participants and confederates left behind, and thus demonstrated that the distance between bags was modulated in response to the interpersonal relationship of their owners. The present study suggests new evidence for expansive PS, which is the concept that an individual’s PS expands into space surrounding his/her belongings.
Calculation problems such as “12×7÷3” can be solved rapidly and easily by using certain techniques; we call these problems “efficient calculation problems.” However, it has been pointed out that many students do not always solve them efficiently. In the present study, we examined the effects of an intervention on 35 seventh grade students (23 males, 12 females). The students were instructed to use an overview strategy that stated, “Think carefully about the whole expression”, and were then taught three sub-strategies. The results showed that students solved similar problems efficiently after the intervention and the effects were preserved for five months.
This study focused on the differences between two subtypes of envy known as “benign envy” and “malicious envy” as personality traits, and examined the effects of these traits on academic achievement. Two hundred fifty-one university students participated in the study. Both benign envy and malicious envy were found to be independent as also found in a previous study by Lange & Crusius (2015), and a high criterion-related validity was revealed by an association with characteristic variables such as dispositional envy and self-esteem. The students with higher levels of benign envy were found to set goals higher, and as a result, achieved higher levels of academic performance. In contrast, no such effect was found for malicious envy. The importance of focusing more attention on the positive aspects of the emotion of envy is discussed.