In this study, we examined the difference in the processing of one’s own name and other people’s names using a mental rotation task. In Experiment 1, the observer’s own name and other common names were presented visually. In Experiment 2, the observer’s name and the names of people who were familiar to the observer were presented. The observer saw the name and judged whether it was mirror-reversed or not. The results show that reaction times and error rates were shorter, when the observer processed his/her own name compared to when processing others names. These findings might be due to peculiarities and familiarity of one’s own name.
This study examined the hypothesis that communicating with the weak ties promotes professional self-efficacy and work engagement, which mediates reflection of one’s past career. As a preliminary survey, semi-structured interviews were conducted with incumbent employees and analyzed regarding career reflection arising from communication with weak ties. As part of this survey, Japanese employees (n = 340) were asked to respond to questionnaires that measured communication between weak ties, career reflection, professional self-efficacy, and work engagement. Factor analysis of the scores for career reflection extracted four factors: re-evaluation of own work styles, rebuilding of non-work activities, improvement of work autonomy, and evocation of work crisis awareness. Covariance structure analysis indicated that communication about work-related contents and expectations of the future with weak ties promoted the re-evaluation of the employees’ own work styles, which was shown to promote professional self-efficacy and work engagement. These results support the original hypothesis and suggest that communicating with weak ties is an important resource for promoting positive change in employees’ sense of work.
We examined two psychological processes of prosocial behavior: feeling gratitude and indebtedness. First, we asked if the value of the behavior for the receiver promotes gratitude; and second if the cost of the behavior for the giver promotes indebtedness. Gratitude and indebtedness were measured as behavioral indices of a quid pro quo (indirect reciprocity and direct reciprocity) to avoid social desirability effects in self-report measures. In Study 1, 119 undergraduates recalled a past experience in which they had been the recipients of prosocial behavior while emphasizing the value, cost, or situation (control) of the event. The level of gratitude was higher, and indirect reciprocity was observed more frequently, in the value condition than in the cost and control conditions. Indebtedness, however, did not differ across the conditions. In Study 2, 59 participants received a gift (the value and cost of which were manipulated) from an imaginary confederate. The value manipulation promoted indirect reciprocity, and both value and cost manipulations encouraged direct reciprocity. Implications for adaptive functions of gratitude in social selection processes are discussed.
Based on Bandura’s social learning theory, this study conceptualized the end-of-life care efficacy (EoLCE) of elderly care facility staff. In Analysis 1, an EoLCE scale was developed. Factor analysis identified two factors ―instrumental care efficacy and emotional care efficacy— with psychometric adequacy. In Analysis 2, a path analysis was used to examine the relationships between EoLCE and the number of care experiences provided (Care Experiences) as well as the four theory-based sources of self-efficacy: the frequency of feeling a sense of achievement (Achievement), number of opportunities to observe role models, number of opportunities to receive linguistic persuasions (Linguistic Persuasions), and negative emotional responses to end-of-life care. After controlling for these sources, we found that Care Experiences negatively influenced emotional care efficacy. Achievement had the strongest significant relationship with EoLCE. The three other sources showed significant relationships with EoLCE, but there was no relationship between instrumental care efficacy and Linguistic Persuasions. To increase EoLCE, the subjective number of social learning experiences relevant to end-of-life care was important, rather than the number of care experiences provided.
This is a micro-ethnographic study focusing on a traditional custom at Tōshi Island in Japan. When first-born sons in the island graduate from junior high school, they form a small group of neya-ko (quasi-brothers) and sleep over at neya-oyas’ (quasi-parents) house every night until they become 26 years old. They keep the quasi-family relationship alive and help each other all through life. We investigated the maintenance process of this cultural custom by participant observations and unstructured interviews. Because of the recent drastic environmental changes around the island, people face difficulties maintaining the custom. In spite of these circumstances, they have been able to maintain the custom not by challenging the environmental changes, but by constantly changing the custom itself to fit the environment. Their flexible decision making may derive from their ecological basis as fishermen. Based on the findings, we discuss the sustainability of cultural customs facing environmental changes.
An “incubation period” refers to an individual’s temporary shift away from an unsolved problem, which ultimately facilitates better problem solving. In this study, we experimentally examined whether creative problem solving was facilitated in accordance with the frequency of mind-wandering during an incubation period. Fifty-nine Japanese undergraduate participants (23 men and 36 women) were asked to complete the Unusual Uses Test (UUT) twice; the UUT is a traditional measurement of the various aspects of divergent thinking (including fluency, flexibility, and originality). They were also asked to rate the frequency in which they engaged in mind-wandering during the interval between UUTs, which was considered as the incubation period. The results indicated that participants who reported a higher frequency of mind-wandering during incubation exhibited more creative solutions on the UUT, especially in terms of flexibility and originality, than did those reporting a lower frequency of mind-wandering.
The term sociosexuality is used to describe individual differences in people’s willingness to engage in uncommitted sexual relationships. The authors developed the revised Sociosexual Orientation Inventory in Japanese (SOI-J) to assess sociosexuality. In addition, we examined the effect of sociosexuality on flirting behaviors. In study 1 and study 2, we translated the revised Sociosexual Orientation Inventory into Japanese and confirmed its reliability and validity. The results of study 3 showed that male sociosexuality had an effect on male and female flirting behaviors. On the other hand, the results showed that female sociosexuality had no effect on male and female flirting behaviors. These results suggest that relationship initiation is controlled by females.
Previous research has explored whether the Japanese concept of Indecisiveness is different from western cultures. The aim of the study was to develop a questionnaire scale to measure the concept of Japanese Indecisiveness (Yujufudan). In the first study, a factor analysis was carried out using data from 255 college students. Four different factors, “reflection” “procrastination” “referring to others” and “anxiety” were obtained. In the second study, a decision-making task was administered to 55 college students. The scores obtained from the factor analysis in the first study predicted performance on the decision-making task. These results demonstrated the validity and reliability for the Japanese Indecisiveness Scale to measure Japanese Indecisiveness (Yujufudan).
The present study aims to develop and examine the reliability, internal validity, and criterion validity of the Life Skills Scale for Adolescents and Adults (LSSAA) that would enable measurement of the level of life skills in Japanese adolescents and adults. In study 1, 238 university students completed a 41-item questionnaire for the LSSAA based on a previous study (Kase et al., 2016). Exploratory factor analysis was divided into four sub-scales: decision-making (8 items), interpersonal relationships (5 items), effective communication (5 items), and coping with emotion (3 items). In study 2, the reliability, content validity, and criterion validity of the LSSAA were examined by administering the questionnaire to 500 Japanese adolescents and adults. Confirmatory factor analysis and correlation analysis showed that the LSSAA had high reliability and validity. Additionally, it was confirmed that the LSSAA was effective for measuring the life skills needed for a satisfactory social life for a wide range (based on sex and/or age) of Japanese adolescents and adults.