Many empirical studies have indicated a possible relationship between psychopathic traits and immoral behaviors. Conversely, some studies suggest that social support from a person’s family moderates this relationship. This study examined the moderating effect of family, friend, or romantic partner support on the relationship of psychopathic traits with immoral intentions and behaviors. A total of 486 college students completed the questionnaire. The results indicated that insufficient family support promotes immoral financial behaviors among students with strong psychopathic traits, which is consistent with previous studies. However, excessive support from family, friend, or a romantic partner promotes interpersonal immoral behaviors among students with strong psychopathic traits. These findings suggest that social support moderates the relationship between immoral behaviors and psychopathic traits. The results also suggest that an appropriate level of family support without excessive interference or overprotection as well as appropriate social support from a friend or romantic partner are essential to regulate the effect of psychopathic traits on immoral behaviors.
Suppressing stereotypic thoughts leads to paradoxical effects (i.e. suppressing a stereotype facilitates the use of the stereotype itself). Recent research on paradoxical effects in stereotype suppression has demonstrated that replacement thoughts decrease its paradoxical effects. This study examined the effectiveness of female counterstereotypes, major non-dominant female stereotypes, and minor non-dominant female stereotypes as replacement thoughts in suppressing dominant female stereotypes. In a lexical decision task, the participants were primed with either female counter-stereotypes, major non-dominant female stereotypes, minor non-dominant female stereotypes, or non-human objects, and thus they were likely to use those that were activated as replacement thoughts. Next, they were given a sentence-stem completion task that served as a manipulation of female stereotype suppression. Finally, they were given another lexical decision task and the response latencies of the stereotypic vs. non-stereotypic words were recorded. The results indicated that regardless of major or minor nondominant female stereotypes as replacement thoughts decreased the paradoxical effects of suppressing dominant female stereotypes. We discussed the way of activation of replacement thoughts and the role of non-dominant stereotypes as replacement thoughts in suppressing dominant stereotypes.
This study investigated the consequences of suppressing negative thoughts about the food products. Consumers are still concerned about food safety after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Given that attempting to suppress stereotypical thoughts ironically leads to increased stereotype accessibility and use (rebound effect), this may be one of the reasons for continued concern. Participants were asked to describe their impressions about food coming from the disaster area. Half were instructed to suppress any negative impressions in their descriptions, whereas the other half did not receive this instruction. Participants then rated another food product from the same area. The results indicated that among participants with a low perceived vulnerability to disease, the group that was asked to suppress any negative thoughts rated the food more negatively than participants in the control group. However, among participants with a high perceived vulnerability to disease, there was no difference between the two groups because their negative impressions were likely readily accessible. We discuss the necessity of investigating a resolution for reputational damage in terms of suppression.
The present study investigated the longitudinal changes in social skills among junior high school students. A total of 505 students (boys = 266, girls = 239) participated in a questionnaire survey every year from the first to third year of junior high school. The results of latent growth curve model indicated a decrease in kakawari skills consisting of assertion and developing relationships with peers, and an increase in hairyo skills consisting of compassion and maintaining relationships with peers. The model also revealed a positive relation between longitudinal changes in kakawari and hairyo skills. However, the results of growth mixture model extracted a profile characterized by increase in both skills and another profile characterized by a decrease in kakawari skills only. Considering the estimated mean level and changes of both skills, we found a widening gap in social skills among students. Furthermore, multi-group analysis for the growth mixture model indicated a sex-based difference in the changes. Overall, educational practices to facilitate kakawari skills are necessary for junior high school students, particularly for girls.
The purpose of this study was to explain the psychological process of exhibiting prosocial behaviors after a person receives gratitude. The results of a preliminary survey indicated that psychological responses are organized into six categories for people who receive gratitude and five categories for those who do not receive it. Participants who participated in this study’s two main surveys completed questionnaires measuring their psychological responses and prosocial behaviors after receiving or not receiving gratitude. Participants in Survey 1 recalled their experiences of receiving or not receiving gratitude from their friends after exhibiting prosocial behaviors, whereas Survey 2 participants recalled their experiences of receiving or not receiving gratitude from strangers. Regression analysis showed that among participants who received gratitude from others, the “affirmative responses to one’s own behavior” promoted a wide variety of prosocial behaviors. Furthermore, a “desire to receive gratitude” promoted prosocial behaviors toward another person after not receiving gratitude.
Previous findings regarding the effects of living in urban environments on residents' subjective well-being have been inconsistent. The present study developed a scale to measure the multifaceted nature of urban living environments and investigated the aspects of urban environments that enhance or reduce residents' life satisfaction. We conducted two online surveys in which adults living in urban or rural areas in Japan (1,000 participants for each survey) completed the Multifaceted Urban Living Environment Scale and the Life Satisfaction Scale. Results indicated that urban living environments are characterized by quality of facilities, life convenience, life unpleasantness, and easy accessibility to public transportation. Of importance, each of these aspects affected residents' life satisfaction differently. Specifically, the quality of facilities was positively associated with life satisfaction, whereas life convenience was negatively associated. However, life unpleasantness and easy accessibility to public transportation had no effect on life satisfaction. These results suggest that it is important to measure the multifaceted nature of urban living environments to gain a deeper understanding of the effects of urbanization on residents' subjective well-being.
Short-version questionnaires are often used in psychological research dealing with constructs, because the number of questions that the respondent must answer can be reduced. However, because such questionnaires do not include all of the items of the original scale, it is questionable whether the results have sufficient validity. In this research, a separate-version questionnaire was introduced, which can reduce the number of items in the same way as a short-version questionnaire, but is expected to have a higher degree of validity. A statistical comparison was performed between a short-version questionnaire and the introduced separate-version questionnaire, both by simulation and using real data, where the analysis model was a confirmatory factor analysis. The simulation considered the situation where the data used in a scale development study were different for the short-version and separate-version questionnaires. The results showed that the separate-version questionnaire had smaller biases than the short-version questionnaire, which indicates the usefulness of the separate-version questionnaires.
This study examined three validity types from the Functional Aggression Scale –factorial validity, cross validity, and criterion validity– using data from 382 Japanese juvenile delinquents referred to Japanese family courts. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Functional Aggression Scale consisted of four factors; however, free estimations were determined to be a better fit for the data than limiting the factor loading to 1. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis revealed the same degree of measurement invariance for the four juvenile delinquent characteristics studied (i.e., age, sex, residential area, and level of delinquency). The Wilcoxon rank-sum test for the factor scores indicated that the violent group’s mean scores for three separate factors (influence/coercion, punishment/retaliation, and identity) were significantly higher than those of the nonviolent group. Also, the violent group’s mean avoidance/defense factor score was not significantly higher than the nonviolent group.
The purpose of this study was to develop the Japanese version of the Disgust Scale-Revised (DS-R-J). The participants were 1063 Japanese people (mean age = 21.64, SD = 7.33, range = 18–77; 581 males and 482 females) and were separated into three different groups. Participants in samples 1 (n = 481) and 2 (n = 492) provided data for examining the factor structure and validity of the DS-R-J. They completed the DS-R-J as well as questionnaires assessing disgust propensity and sensitivity, anxiety sensitivity, state and trait anxiety, affective state, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Participants in sample 3 (n = 90) provided data for estimating the test–retest reliability of the DS-R-J. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the three-factor structure involving core disgust, animal-reminder disgust, and physical and mental contamination disgust. Internal consistency and test–retest reliability were sufficient, and conceptual validity of the DS-R-J was also supported. The results show that the Japanese version of the DS-R-J is a reliable and valid measurement of disgust sensitivity.
A scale for assessing the inclination for social child-rearing among university students was developed. Social child-rearing is defined as child-rearing not only by the parents but supported by society as a whole. The attitude of supporting this type of child-rearing has been called an “inclination for social child-rearing.” University students (n = 661) filled out a questionnaire and factor analysis results indicated four factors related to an inclination for social child-rearing: an orientation for problem-solving related to children and child-rearing; feelings of avoidance of children and child-rearing; an inclination toward child-rearing at home; and acceptance of the tax burden. In general, the inclination for social child-rearing was higher among women; this inclination was even higher when there were children or other child-rearing people in the participants’ proximity. Correlations with existing scales indicated that the inclination for social child-rearing was higher when social interests, social considerations, and nurturance were higher. These results indicate the concurrent validity of the scale developed in this study.
This study compared the psychological health of children who moved to temporary housing following the Fukushima nuclear accident with those who stayed in their own houses. The questionnaire was designed to measure stress responses, positive events in daily life, positive affect, and social support. It was completed by 28 children who had evacuated from the affected area and lived in temporary housing; 106 children living in their own houses in Fukushima Prefecture; and 321 children living in a nonaffected area in Saitama Prefecture. The results showed that children who moved to temporary housing experienced more frequent bullying and play-related stressors, had less positive experiences related to events with family members and during lessons, and received less support from their teachers and friends than other children. However, the differences in living environments did not affect their stress responses or positive affect. These findings suggest the importance of providing temporary housing environments that enable children to experience close interactions with friends and adequate support from teachers.