This study explored the effects of perspective taking on the evaluation of others, using text mining to analyze narrative essays. The participants were assigned to either the perspective taking or control group and were asked to write a narrative essay about a photograph of an overweight man (i.e., target). Next, they were asked to provide their impressions of another overweight man. Based on the analysis using text mining, the words from the narrative essays were classified into two clusters. The first cluster focused on the target’s job, while the second focused on his figure. The ANOVA demonstrated that the participants in the perspective taking group refrained from using words pertaining to the figure cluster. In addition, the results of a path analysis suggested that the words used in the figure cluster may be a predictor of people’s evaluations of others.
While community-based sports clubs can provide children with opportunities for physical exercise, they often need a high degree of support from the children’s parents. The present study investigated the motivations for mothers to support these clubs based on previous studies on motivation for volunteering. We conducted an online survey of Japanese mothers (N = 800) whose children in grades three to six participated in community-based junior sports clubs (N = 800). The results indicated that high levels of harassment among parents, as well as volunteer requirements, increased the mothers’ feelings of being burdened, causing them to be less likely to continue supporting the club. We also found that the satisfaction with volunteer participation had positive effects on the mothers’ intentions to continue to support the clubs and reduced feelings of being burdened. Furthermore, justice sensitivity moderated the relationship between the sense of burden and the intention to continue supporting the clubs. The results of the present study are expected to be examined with respect to other volunteer activities.
This study investigated whether there are differences in bystander behavior when bullying is witnessed. We evaluated the number and types of bystander behaviors by means of the OBVQ, and then examined the psychological characteristics of the different bystander behaviors. 269 Japanese elementary school students and 503 junior high school students completed questionnaires assessing empathic concern, peer conformity, moral disengagement, authenticity and satisfaction in classes, global self-worth, and how they would respond if they observed a peer being bullied. The results of a multinomial logistic regression analysis and ANOVA demonstrated that there would be some types of bystander behavior with common characteristics such as empathic concern and developmental differences. Moreover, the results also showed that two types of behaviors, of which one indicated the most negative psychological state, might be caused by peer conformity. Other behaviors might be caused by moral disengagement and contain some subordinate modes owing to regulatory effects of peer conformity, such as pretending to be unaware of bullying. The practical implications of bystander behavior are discussed.
In the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) research community, there is an ongoing controversy between those who argue the basic mechanisms that view trauma encoding and retrieval as an extension of emotionally-valenced ordinary memory, and those who posit special mechanisms of traumatic memory different from ordinary memory. In particular, there is a growing body of research on whether traumatic events have highly impact and therefore easily integrate into the self (basic mechanisms) or whether they never integrate into the self (special mechanisms). In this study, I developed the Japanese version of the Centrality of Event Scale (CES), which measures the centrality of an event as an index of the extent to which the event is integrated into the self. I hope cross-cultural studies use the CES and conduct further research to address the mechanisms of trauma encoding, retrieval, and the self.
This study investigated the validity of the direct current component of a finger plethysmograph, often called blood volume (BV), as a measure for the concealed information test (CIT), that is, the psychophysiological memory detection test. The BV, pulse volume (PV), and normalized pulse volume (NPV) obtained from experimental mock crime CITs were analyzed, with 23 participants taking part in knowledgeable and unknowledgeable CITs. The results revealed that all measures could discriminate crime-relevant and irrelevant information with the mean value of each time series but could not with the phasic change from the base level. Furthermore, the results showed that the discriminability of BV between relevant and irrelevant items was higher when the NPV was low. In conclusion, BV could be an effective measure for CIT, especially under conditions of severe vasoconstriction.
In recent years, there has been a growing social movement in Japan to develop better work styles. With this background, the present study aimed to examine the relationship between achievement goals and meaningful work in Japan to replicate studies conducted in the West. In addition, we also examined whether an occupational classification moderates the relationship between achievement goals and meaningful work. To this end, we conducted a web survey comprising of blue- and white-collar workers (N = 792) aged 19 to 69. Multiple regression analysis showed that mastery-approach and performance-approach goals were relatively strongly related to meaningful work. Additionally, among white-collar workers, it was observed that performance-approach goals had a positive relationship with meaningful work while performance-avoidance goals had a negative relationship. These results suggested that, in Japan, both mastery-approach and mastery-avoidance goals are related to meaningful work, and that the relationship between performance goals and meaningful work differs based on the goals in the occupation.
The purposes of this study are to clarify the relationship between attitudes toward Amabie (folkloric mermaid -like creature) during the COVID-19 calamity and traditional values, including everyday religious activities in Japan, and to explore the social functions of Yokai (Japanese supernatural creature and phenomena). Although Yokai have historically had both religious and entertainment roles, recent studies have shown that contemporary Yokai are only seen as entertainment. In Japan, however, Amabie has been attracting public attention for its historic ability to repulse plagues and therefore seems to have social functions other than entertainment. Study 1 used newspaper articles and other supporting materials to investigate the social prevalence of Amabie and the way people relate to it. Study 2 investigated attitudes towards Amabie and traditional values. The results suggested that with the expectations that Amabie could drive the plague off, Amabie evoked not only positive but also negative impressions, and for that reason, it might be accepted as a Yokai. This showed that the function of Yokai may change depending on the situation.
Temporal synchrony between visual and auditory stimuli plays an important role in audiovisual integration. Audiovisual temporal synchrony is recalibrated by the most-recent timing of audiovisual stimuli. My previous study has shown that this recalibration happens when there is compensation for neural processing speed differences based on spatial frequency (SF) using a simultaneity judgment task. The present study tested this finding using a temporal order judgment task. In this experiment, participants judged the temporal order of a pure tone and a Gabor patch. The results indicated that the high SF stimuli induced a larger positive rapid recalibration than the low SF stimuli. However, this difference is mostly explained by a simple bias repeating a previous judgment. Therefore, the current study has confirmed that rapid recalibration is not affected by the differences in neural processing speed based on SF. Furthermore, this experiment suggested that the magnitude of choice-repetition bias should also be taken into account when comparing the magnitude of rapid recalibration in the temporal order judgment task.