This study investigated the personality of employees on medical leave due to mental health disorders. Focusing on Contingencies of self-worth (CSW) as a metric of personality, we examined whether the CSW of employees on medical leave due to mental health disorders matched the perceived values of their workplace, in comparison with that of employees at work. We also examined the change of CSW before and after medical leave. Thirty-six employees on medical leave and 133 employees at work participated in this survey study. The results showed that three types of CSW (CSW for being superior, for having positive evaluation from others, for having autonomy) were higher in employees on medical leave than in employees at work. We also showed that there was a large difference between each type of CSW of employees on medical leave and the perceived values of their workplace and that all three types of CSW decreased after medical leave.
When receiving help, the beneficiary feels both emotional gratitude and emotional indebtedness towards the benefactor, highlighting the close relationship between the two feelings. In this study, we tried to create a single integrated model of emotional gratitude and emotional indebtedness. Additionally, based on our model, we tested the effects of emotional gratitude and emotional indebtedness on the intention of reciprocal behavior towards the benefactor. All participants (N = 330) were asked to answer questions after reading vignettes describing a situation in which they received help. As a result of the analysis, we were able to propose a new model in which benefit appraisal mediates the relationship between trait gratitude and emotional gratitude, as well as the relationship between trait indebtedness and emotional indebtedness. We also demonstrated that emotional gratitude and emotional indebtedness affected the intention of reciprocal behavior towards the benefactor; however, their interaction effect was not significant.
It is well known that cognitive fluency affects various attitudes. We demonstrated that a subjective feeling of fluency, induced by repeated exposure to handwritten words, increases the acceptance of persuasive messages. Participants were repeatedly exposed to a set of handwritten words written in Japanese. In a subsequent test phase, they were required to rate the handwritten messages. The results showed that when the personal relevance of the messages was low, repeated exposure facilitated acceptance of messages written by the same person who had written the previously exposed words. This observation implies that we might make irrational decisions according to the ease with which the message can be processed, rather than according to the validity of message content.
It is widely accepted that sex offenders frequently deny their offense or minimize their responsibility, and there is controversy regarding how this should be approached in psychological interventions. However, few studies have examined the relationship between denial/minimization and recidivism, and the results are inconsistent across the limited body of research. The purpose of this research was to estimate the prevalence of denial/minimization in sex offenders and examine its relationship with recidivism. We examined 1,484 sex offenders who had been convicted from July 2008 to June 2009 in Japan. The prevalence of both denial and minimization was 16.3% overall. In addition, the relationship between denial/minimization and recidivism was investigated for 753 convicts whose sentences had been suspended. Controlling for possible confounding variables, including empirically known risk factors, logistic regression revealed that denial/minimization did not significantly increase the possibility of both any and sexual recidivism during the 5-year follow-up period. Implications for psychological intervention and future research are discussed.
Literature in the field of regulatory focus theory argues that individuals who are promotion-focused increativity-related tasks are more successful than those who are prevention-focused. However, recent studies have shown that prevention-focused individuals are persistent when solving tasks, potentially leading to improved task performance. This study, which considered two kinds of regulatory focus (chronic/situational), investigated the hypothesis that prevention-focused individuals employ a persistent style when performing creative tasks. A Japanese version of the Remote Associates Test (RAT) was used as a creative task, and subjective depletion after the RAT, as well as the time spent deciding to skip RAT items, were measured as indicators of persistence. The results showed that both chronic and situational prevention focuses made participants more depleted than did the promotion focus. Furthermore, in the situational promotion-focus condition, chronic prevention focus made participants more depleted and lengthened the time taken to skip items. Thus, chronic prevention focus promoted persistence in a regulatory nonfit condition (i.e., situational promotion focus).
Odor-evoked autobiographical memory and related psychological changes have been evaluated based on several factors such as emotionality, clarity, and re-experience, but these assessments remain incomplete. We developed the Odor-Evoked Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire (OEAMQ) as a new method for comprehensively evaluating the characteristics and function of olfactory autobiographical memory. Odor-evoked memories were initially evaluated using multiple items from questionnaires on general memory characteristics, as well as the results of previous studies of odor-evoked memories. We obtained seven factors of which four (retrospective interpretation, clarity, time information, and sensory experience) were consistent with the general questionnaires, and three were new factors specific for olfactory memory (future action, emotional experience, and nostalgia). To investigate the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, we evaluated odor-evoked autobiographical memories using 21 items (three for each factor). Factor analysis verified the seven-factor structure and demonstrated it to be sufficiently reliable (Cronbach’s alpha = .91). The validity of the questionnaire was also confirmed by high correlations between odor pleasantness and memory scores.
This study investigated the effect of emphasis on classroom social goals (compliance goals vs. prosocial goals) on psychological reactance and intention to share the goals. Elementary school children (N = 139) participated in a questionnaire-based experiment. In the experiment, two hypothetical scenarios were presented in which hypothetical teachers emphasized classroom social goals (i.e., compliance goals, representing the minimum level of compliance with rules, versus prosocial goals, representing the ideal level of compliance with rules), and the participants were asked to rate their psychological reactance and intention to share the goal related to each condition. A within-participant t test revealed that compliance goals were higher in psychological reactance. Twocondition within-participant mediation analysis also revealed that compliance goals indirectly undermined the children’s intention to share the goals, mediated by psychological reactance.
Body analogy is an operation that links spatial cognition with the sensorimotor systems. Previous studies on mental rotation have shown that adding a head at the top of stimulus cubes or imitating human posture improves mental rotation performance results. On the other hand, mental rotation performance tends to be better in males than females. In this study, we tested sex differences in the effects of body analogy on a mental rotation task. The task was to judge whether the stimulus from a pair of cubes was the same or not; we added faces to the cubes or imitated human posture with cubes. The results revealed that body analogy was useful for both males and females but the effect was greater for females. However, additional correlation analyses indicated that this effect was at least partly due to the differences in abilities required for mental rotation, rather than sex differences. These results suggest that body analogy can compensate for weaknesses in spatial cognition.
This study investigated the relationship between athletes’ mindfulness and future decrements in performance.Participants were 116 university athletes (male = 63, female = 53, unknown = 3, mean age = 19.25, SD = 0.98). The participants completed a questionnaire comprising a few questions related to socio-demographic variables, the Athletes Mindfulness Questionnaire (AMQ), and the Athletes Performance Decrement Questionnaire (APDQ) at time 1 and time 2 (4–7 months after time 1). The results of a cross-lagged effects model revealed that AMQ score at time 1 was positively associated with AMQ score at time 2 and negatively associated with APDQ score at time 2. However, APDQ score at time 1 was positively associated only with APDQ score, but not AMQ score, at time 2. This study’s results indicated that athletes’ mindfulness is unidirectionally associated with decrements in performance. This implies that increasing mindfulness may be an effective method for preventing impairments in athletic performance arising from psychological factors.
In many foreign studies, traditional male roles are measured through multiple constructs. However, these constructs are not organized, and the reliability and validity of these scales have not been verified in Japan. This study sought to rearrange the constructs of traditional male roles, develop a scale to match these constructs, and verify its reliability and validity. Based on existing measures, traditional male roles are composed of five factors: high social status; physical and psychological toughness; high agency; low effeminacy; and superiority over women. In Study 1, by using data obtained from 316 undergraduate students, I chose four items for each of the five factors by using confirmatory factor analysis and a scale for attitudes regarding the traditional Japanese male roles was developed. Study 2 verified the scale’s criterion-related validity using data obtained from 361 undergraduate students. T-test showed that men scored higher than women for all factors, implying that men are still bound to traditional male roles. Lastly, Study 3 validated its time-stability. Together, these results indicate that the scale is reliable and valid.
The tau and kappa effects are perceptual illusions involved with spatiotemporal interactions. In the tau (kappa) effect, the spatial distance (duration) between two stimuli is perceived as longer when the duration (spatial distance) between these stimuli is made physically longer. The occurrence of these effects is explained by two hypotheses, both assuming the perception of motion between locations in which the stimuli are presented. Additionally, the first hypothesis posits that the motion speed is kept constant, whereas the second hypothesis is based on a Bayesian model with prior knowledge that the speed is slow. Perceived spatial distance and duration are estimated from the predicted motion velocity, resulting in the tau and kappa effects. This article aims to discuss the validity of each hypothesis, as well as future avenues, through a review of recent studies related to the tau and kappa effects.