This study examined the relationships between motivational regulation strategies, goal achievements, and learning habits in junior high school students. A total of 288 junior high school students completed a self-administered questionnaire. We focused on the students’ representative motivational regulation styles, i.e., intrinsic vs extrinsic motivational regulation. Structural equation modeling revealed the following: (a) mastery goals promoted an intrinsic regulation strategy, which in turn, facilitated development of beneficial learning habits; (b) performance-approach goals promoted an extrinsic regulation strategy, which by contrast inhibited the development of beneficial learning habits. These results suggest that goal achievement positively affects learning behavior mediated by motivational regulation strategies. In light of these findings, we discuss the importance of intrinsic regulation strategies in promoting beneficial learning habits in junior high school students.
Studies have revealed a valence-specific laterality effect. i.e., positive facial expressions are perceived more accurately in the right visual field, whereas negative facial expressions are perceived more accurately in the left visual field (e.g., Jansari, Tranel, & Adolphs, 2000). We presented a pair of faces with emotional labels (happy or angry), and then asked participants (24 females and 24 males) to select the face that best depicted the emotion corresponding to the emotional label. We found that participants’ choices were biased toward a face on the right side for faces with the happy label, but biased toward a face on the left side for faces with the angry label. This tendency was significantly enhanced when it was difficult to discriminate the expressions between a pair of faces. These results suggest that the valence-specific laterality effect is due to response bias rather than visual field advantage for each type of positive/negative face.
The anagram task is widely used in psychological research as a manipulation of independent and dependent variables. The purposes of this study were to develop a database of anagrams and to clarify the relationship between material word characteristics and the difficulty of an anagram. We developed 147 five-letter hiragana anagrams and tested them on 39 university students. In the experiment, we measured the rate of correct answers within 3 minutes, solution time, and subjective difficulty as indices of task difficulty, as well as familiarity, imageability, and emotional valence as word characteristics. We found significant correlations between task difficulty indices and word characteristics; specifically, increasing word characteristic ratings indicated decreasing difficulty of the anagrams. The data from this study could be used to choose anagrams for psychological experiments, and as a guideline to modulate difficulty when developing other anagrams.
Recently, with gender equality advancing within society, men are increasingly being expected to undertake other, non-traditional, roles. The aim of this study was to develop the new male roles scale, and examine its reliability and validity. Study 1 showed that the new male roles scale consisted following four factors; Attentiveness to Women, Commitment to Household Responsibility, Consideration for Others, and Emancipation from Emotional Restriction and Toughness. In study 2, four items for each factor were chosen and goodness of fit of this scale was confirmed. Furthermore, the result revealed that this scale had certain validity. Study3 showed that this scale had time stability, except for Commitment to Household Responsibility. However, its internal reliability was confirmed in study 2. These results suggest that this scale has certain reliability and validity. Finally, the relationship between this scale and previous researches was discussed.
This study examined the relationships among children's role-taking ability in rule and moral situations and classroom behavior (non-cooperative class behavior, rule compliance behavior, and prosocial behavior), as well as children's emotions toward school (liking/avoidance). Participants were Grade 5 and 6 primary-school students in Japan. We used path analysis to examine the effects of role-taking ability in moral situations influenced prosocial behavior and school liking. The results indicated that role-taking ability in moral situations influences on school liking via prosocial behavior. The results can be helpful in understanding and improving children's adjustment to school.
In this study, we investigated cultural differences in multisensory perception of emotion between Chinese and Japanese participants, focusing on mutual interference of visual and auditory emotional information. In this experiment, the face-voice pairs were consisted of congruent or incongruent emotions (e.g., a happy (an angry) face with a happy (an angry) voice in congruent pairs, and a happy (an angry) face with an angry (a happy) voice in incongruent pairs). Participants were asked to judge the emotion of targets focusing on either face or voice while ignoring the other modality’s information. In the voice-focus condition, the effect of to-be-ignored facial information was smaller in Japanese than Chinese participants, only when the participant and the target belonged to the same cultures (in-group). This indicated that Japanese people were more likely to be based on the voice information in multisensory perception of emotion of in-group. Our study illuminated that although both Japanese and Chinese people belonged to the Eastern culture, there were cultural differences in perceiving emotion from visual and auditory cues.
The effects of two introductory styles on substantive information provided by Japanese children were investigated. Children aged 5–6 years (n = 42) and 7–8 years (n = 40) took a simulated physical examination. One week later, the participants were interviewed about the examination in a narrative introductory condition using open-ended questions, or a non-narrative introductory condition using directive and yes/no questions. Substantive information provided by the children in the two conditions was compared. Results indicated that in the narrative condition, the participants provided more accurate information about the examination in response to open-ended questions. Additionally, the 7–8 year-old children in the narrative condition provided a wider range of critical information. These findings suggest that an open-ended introductory style is effective in eliciting more accurate information from children, including preschoolers, and more varied information from school-age children.
This study investigated the independence of old and new item processing in recognition judgment. Conventional recognition studies have focused on the “memory” aspects of recognition judgment, while new item processing has been treated as a “residual response” of old item processing. However, prior studies on confidence ratings and the brain research suggest the possibility that old and new items are independently processed. This study conducted recognition judgment tests with the number of learned items as independent variables, and response times for four answer categories (hit, miss, correct rejection, and false alarm) as dependent variables. Hit response times were consistently shorter than misses for all old items, while correct rejection (CR) and false alarm (FA) response times approached equivalence (CR = FA) for new items as the number of old (memorized) items increased. These results suggest that recognition judgment changes according to the number of old (memorized) items. We discuss the idea that new item and old item processing in recognition judgment occur independently.
This study attempts to identify response styles of Japanese students by cross-level and cross-national analyses. Tasaki and Ninomiya (2013) demonstrated the existence of an acquiescence response behavior of Japanese students based on the model by Billet and McClendon(2000), who measured latent response characteristics as “style factor.” In this study, we used a different response style measurement model proposed by Weijters, Schillewaert, & Geuens (2008) positing that response styles are psychological constructs and observed response style variables are summary indicators derived from sets of various, but independent, test items. Results of cross-national analyses indicated that Japanese and Korean participants were more likely to choose a mid-point response (MRS) and less likely to choose an acquiescence response (ARS) than American counterparts, but no significant difference was observed for an extreme response (ERS) among participants from the three nations. Within the Japanese response style model, cross-level analyses showed that ARS scores were significantly higher than ERS scores, indicating that Japanese participants had an acquiescence response style, consistent with the findings from Tasaki & Ninomiya (2013).
Empathy is a multi-dimensional concept with emotional and cognitive components. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) is a multi-dimensional scale of empathic traits. Although some researchers have attempted to translate the IRI into Japanese, these translated scales had limitations with content and construct validity, and measurement invariance. We therefore attempt to overcome these limitations by developing a new Japanese version of the IRI (IRI-J). We used three approaches to assess the validity and measurement invariance of the IRI-J. In Study 1, content validity was tested using back-translation, and construct validity was confirmed through a comprehensive investigation of a web-based survey using six other scales. Results indicate that the factor structure of the IRI-J was equivalent to that of the original version, and that the IRI-J had adequate reliability and construct validity. In Study 2, measurement invariance by gender was confirmed using data from four web-based surveys. These results suggest that the factor model of IRI-J for each gender is equivalent. The present study thus provides an improved measure of empathic traits for the Japanese population.
The present study examined effects of predictions made by a help-seeker about the emotions and costs of a helper on help-seeking behavior. We surveyed undergraduate and graduate students who completed a questionnaire and scenario task. The scenario presented that a person would face the trouble. The questionnaire presented a case where a person was troubled. Respondents were required to answer the following questions: (a) whether they would seek help; (b) whether the helper would respond to help-seeking; (c) the helper’s costs; (d) the negative moods of the helper. Covariance structure analysis of 189 participant responses revealed that help-seeker predictions about the helper’s emotions and costs were used to predict the intentions of the helper, which affected the intentions to seek help. We discuss these results with respect to interpersonal cognition in intimate relationships.
Consumers have had concerns over the safety of Fukushima-produced foods since the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. To dispel these concerns, the public administration has distributed the informational leaflets, which guarantee the safety of Fukushima-produced foods in the marketplace. We investigated the effectiveness of the leaflets. Previous research showed that the activation of behavioral immune system exacerbated prejudice toward out-group members. Therefore, we investigated whether reading the leaflets about the safety of foods would increase prejudice toward foreigners. Participants (N = 50) were asked to read a leaflet either relevant or irrelevant to the safety of Fukushima-produced foods and then complete a Japanese-Foreigners Implicit Association Test and Perceived Vulnerability to Disease Scale. As predicted, participants high in chronic germ aversion (GA) were more prejudiced against foreigners when reading the leaflet relevant to the safety of Fukushima-produced foods than when reading the leaflet irrelevant to the issue. No such effect was observed among participants low in GA. These results indicated the possibility that the current leaflet about the safety of Fukushima foods might backfire.
Previous studies have shown a positive correlation between the use of a learning strategy and perceived benefits. However, the impact of perceived benefits as conditional knowledge in metacognitive knowledge has not been examined. The present study investigated the effect of perceived benefits about when (short and long) and how (persistent and suitable) to use learning strategies using two surveys. Each survey utilized a sample of undergraduate students from three different Japanese universities, and the Bayesian hierarchical modeling and within-person variance were used to verify the relationship between the use of a learning strategy and perceived benefits. The students completed questionnaires regarding cognitive (Survey 2a) and metacognitive (Survey 2b) strategies (Survey 1 included two strategies), and achievement goals (without Survey 1). Findings revealed the effects of long-term and short-term persistent perceived benefits on the use of a learning strategy in all the surveys. These results suggest that persistent benefits be emphasized in order to promote the use of learning strategies, and that the appropriate perceived benefits be emphasized in order to become an adaptive learner.
Studies of geographic profiling (GP) have generally investigated the efficacy of two categories of GP strategies for predicting an offender’s base. These strategies can be classified as follows: (a) spatial distribution strategies, assessed by center of the circle hypothesis, mean center, median center, and the center of minimum distance, and (b) probability distance strategies, assessed by linear, negative exponential, logarithmic, and lognormal distributions. GP strategies were compared based on the data of 333 residential burglars who had committed at least three offenses in the Tohoku region during the years 2004-2013. Search area (total area that is searched before locating the offender’s base) was utilized as an index for accuracy measure. The results demonstrated that probability distance strategies are more accurate than spatial distribution strategies. We conclude that this is because probability distance strategies captured crime patterns of residential burglars more precisely than spatial distribution strategies.
We developed a scale to measure inter-role conflict among employed family caregivers of elderly people with dementia, titled the Caregiving-Work Conflict Scale (CWCS). In study 1, items for the scale were selected, and factor structure and internal consistency were examined. In study 2, test-retest reliability of the scale was examined. In study 3, validity of the scales was examined using different samples compared to study 1 and 2. Results show that the CWCS, consisting of 20 items in 5 subscales corresponding to a bidirectional construct of inter-role conflict (caregiving interfering with work and work interfering with caregiving), was reliable and valid. We also show that when we consider cognitive appraisal in addition to frequency of experience in the assessment of inter-role conflict, no significant differences were observed in predicting stress and caregiving burden. We discuss the assessment and structure of inter-role conflict among employed family caregivers of elderly people with dementia.
This study aimed to compare information provided on student counseling center websites of universities and colleges in Japan, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Taiwan. A survey was conducted on websites of 315 centers in Japan, 282 centers in the United States, 70 centers in the United Kingdom and 61 centers in Taiwan. Trends in the provision of information on websites in each country were analyzed and compared for the rate and quantity of information published. Results of multiple correspondence analyses indicated two basic dimensions of information that could effectively distinguish information provided in the four countries. These were provision of necessary information and provision of information for use of individual counseling or support of community. Finally, issues related to websites in student counseling centers of Japanese universities and colleges are discussed.
This study examined the relationships among motivational regulation strategies, motivational factors, and learning behaviors outside the classroom. There are three subtypes of motivational regulation strategies: autonomous regulation strategies, cooperative strategies, and performance-focused strategies. Motivational factors included in the investigation were self-efficacy and task value, while behavioral and emotional engagement and study time were selected as learning behaviors outside the classroom. A self-report questionnaire was administered to 322 undergraduates from two universities. Multiple regression analysis revealed the use of autonomous regulation strategies, and that task value was positively correlated with engagement and study time. Moreover, self-efficacy positively predicted study time. In contrast, the use of performance strategies negatively predicted engagement. The use of cooperative strategies did not predict learning behaviors. These results indicate that motivation, as well as the regulation of motivation, were important for learning outside the classroom. The effects of regulation of motivation and motivation on learning outside the classroom are discussed in light of the current findings.