A field experiment was conducted to examine the factors in threat appeal responsible for maintenance of crime-prevention behavior. At four public bicycle parking lots, 256 riders with variable receiver vulnerability characteristics were encouraged to use an extra bicycle lock. They were randomly presented with one of three threat messages featuring victims of bicycle theft (identifiable victim, statistical victim, or control), followed by either high- or low-efficacy preventative-messages. After extra locks were installed on their bicycles, participants’ use of the lock was observed five times within 28 days after the intervention. A mixed-effect generalized linear model revealed that vulnerability of the participants increased the use of the lock immediately after the intervention. Meanwhile, highly vulnerable participants who were presented with an identifiable victim and high-efficacy messages decreased their use of the lock significantly compared to low-vulnerability participants and those who were presented with the low-efficacy message. The result implies that threat appeal strategies differ depending on receiver vulnerability and the type of preventative behavior.
Theory-of-mind (ToM) has been extensively studied using neuroimaging, with the goal of finding a neural basis for ToM and its associate emotional and cognitive processes. In neuroimaging, a functional localizer is used when a region of interest needs to be identified in a way that is statistically independent of the main experiment. The original ToM localizer (ToM-L) for functional magnetic resonance imaging (Dodell-Feder et al., 2011) measures brain activity when a set of English sentences and related questions are read and answered by participants. We developed a linguistically localized version of the ToM-L for use with Japanese speakers, and evaluated it by scanning 70 participants. The results showed that this localizer could be used to define individual ToM-related areas, requiring about one-third of the scanning time of the original ToM-L while maintaining its statistical ability to identify individual ToM-related brain regions.
“Reality shock” is defined as the discrepancy between an individual’s expectations established prior to joining to an organization and their perceptions after becoming a member of the organization. The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to measure factors leading to reality shock in first-year teachers, and to confirm its reliability and validity. A scale was developed based on factors leading to realty shock, and a survey was conducted on 219 first-year teachers (90 men, 129 women, mean age 25.18 years). Structure analysis based on factor analysis revealed that this scale consisted of four factors; “inter-personal relations in the workplace”, “lack of experience”, “relationship with students or parents”, and “pressure at work”. Given that high scores of the scale were associated with negative changes in perceptions of work, we showed that the scale was concurrently valid. Multiple regression analysis showed that realty shock significantly influenced stress responses, and that it had particular positive effects on anxiety and depression. Future studies will need to elucidate factors that buffer the effects of reality shock, and develop interventions to prevent worsening mental health in first-year teachers.
This study developed a Japanese version of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2), a measure for a comprehensive assessment of positive body image, and investigated its reliability and validity. The results of confirmatory factor analysis showed that, like the original version, the Japanese BAS-2 had a one-factor structure and invariance across gender. Body appreciation scores had good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity. Furthermore, the scale exhibited incremental validity by predicting psychological elements (disordered eating, self-esteem, and satisfaction with life) above and beyond body dissatisfaction. Thus, the BAS-2 is suitable for the assessment of positive body image in the Japanese population.
Eidetic imagery is a kind of mental visual imagery that is externally localized and literally “seen” by the eidetiker. Previous studies have not clarified whether eidetikers have enhanced visuo-spatial memory abilities. This study compared visuo-spatial short-term memory capacities between eidetikers and non-eidetikers who were matched in terms of age, gender, and visual imagery ability. We measured the memory capacity of nine eidetikers and 18 non-eidetikers in two memory tasks (Visual Pattern Test and Corsi Block Test) that differed in the mode of presentation of visual stimuli (simultaneous and sequential, respectively). Eidetikers performed better than non-eidetikers on simultaneous tasks but performed similarly to non-eidetikers on sequential tasks. This study suggests that eidetikers are better at retaining stimuli presented simultaneously.
The proportion congruency (PC) effect is a congruency effect that decreases as the ratio of congruent to incongruent trials within a given block increases. Researchers have been interested in the transference from a set of congruent to incongruent trials, with different ratios to a set of congruent and incongruent trials with equal ratios (diagnostic task). This present study investigated whether the PC effect is transferred across tasks with a coexisting Stimulus-Response conflict (Simon task) and Stimulus-Stimulus conflict (spatial-Stroop task) in a Stimulus-Response compatibility task. Right-handed students (N = 16) were required to identify the direction of an up/down arrow presented in four possible locations (right/up, right/down, left/up and left/down). We observed the transference from two perspectives, i.e., the Simon and spatial-Stroop views. The results indicated that the PC effect was not transferred across different types of conflicts. Therefore, these results suggest that attentional control in the Simon and spatial-Stroop tasks is independent and has a simultaneous effect.
According to the regulatory fit theory (Higgins, 2000), when people engage in goal pursuit in a manner that fits their orientation (e.g., promotion/eager or prevention/vigilance), they experience regulatory fit and engage more strongly in the pursuit, leading to better outcomes. The present research investigated the influence of regulatory fit on performance by considering the type of performance (speed or accuracy) and the kind of regulatory fit (promotion/eager, orprevention/vigilance). In Study 1, 85 university students were induced to hold a promotion or prevention orientation. In Study 2, 90 university students were assessed for individual differences in regulatory orientation. The results indicated that speed performance was best when there was promotion/eager regulatory fit, whereas accuracy performance was best when there was prevention/vigilance regulatory fit. These findings suggest that the performance effects of regulatory fit are not identical, but differ according to the types of regulatory fit.
This study examined the effects of culture, gender, and personality on an individual’s propensity to touch another person. A survey questionnaire was administered to 202 Japanese and 212 Korean undergraduate students. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that the two personality traits of extraversion and openness exerted a significant positive effect on an individual’s propensity to touch others, such as their fathers, mothers, and close same-sex and opposite-sex friends. Furthermore, the relative effects of culture, gender, and personality on the tendency to touch varied depending on the target person. For example, culture was the strongest factor influencing an individual’s propensity to touch their parents, whereas extraversion most strongly influenced one’s tendency to touch close same-sex or opposite-sex friends. Our results suggest that individuals with high extraversion and/or high openness are more likely to use touching behavior as an instrument for building social relationships with close same-sex or opposite-sex friends.
Impulsivity has been linked to traffic safety problems in many prior studies. However, it is not clear whether impulsivity, defined by the rate of discounting delayed monetary rewards, relates to drivers’ problematic behavior. We investigated the relationship between the discounting of hypothetical monetary outcomes and near accident (i.e. hiyari-hatto) experiences during driving among occupational drivers. A total of 189 occupational drivers (160 men) completed the delay discounting questionnaire and hiyari-hatto experiences scale. In completing the delay discounting questionnaire, participants were asked to perform the two delay-discounting tasks, in which they chose between ¥100,000 or ¥5,000 available after some delay (from 1 month to 5 years) or a lesser amount of money available immediately. Subjective equivalence points were obtained from participants’ choices on delay discounting questionnaires, from which the areas under the curve (AUC; Myerson et al., 2001) were calculated. The results indicated that the rate of discounting (AUC) was negatively correlated to near accident experiences. We discuss the need for future research on impulsivity, delay discounting, and traffic safety.
The anagram task is widely used in psychological research as a manipulation of independent and dependent variables. The purposes of this study were to develop a database of anagrams and to clarify the relationship between material word characteristics and the difficulty of an anagram. We developed 147 five-letter hiragana anagrams and tested them on 39 university students. In the experiment, we measured the rate of correct answers within 3 minutes, solution time, and subjective difficulty as indices of task difficulty, as well as familiarity, imageability, and emotional valence as word characteristics. We found significant correlations between task difficulty indices and word characteristics; specifically, increasing word characteristic ratings indicated decreasing difficulty of the anagrams. The data from this study could be used to choose anagrams for psychological experiments, and as a guideline to modulate difficulty when developing other anagrams.
Recently, with gender equality advancing within society, men are increasingly being expected to undertake other, non-traditional, roles. The aim of this study was to develop the new male roles scale, and examine its reliability and validity. Study 1 showed that the new male roles scale consisted following four factors; Attentiveness to Women, Commitment to Household Responsibility, Consideration for Others, and Emancipation from Emotional Restriction and Toughness. In study 2, four items for each factor were chosen and goodness of fit of this scale was confirmed. Furthermore, the result revealed that this scale had certain validity. Study3 showed that this scale had time stability, except for Commitment to Household Responsibility. However, its internal reliability was confirmed in study 2. These results suggest that this scale has certain reliability and validity. Finally, the relationship between this scale and previous researches was discussed.