Theory-of-mind (ToM) has been extensively studied using neuroimaging, with the goal of finding a neural basis for ToM and its associate emotional and cognitive processes. In neuroimaging, a functional localizer is used when a region of interest needs to be identified in a way that is statistically independent of the main experiment. The original ToM localizer (ToM-L) for functional magnetic resonance imaging (Dodell-Feder et al., 2011) measures brain activity when a set of English sentences and related questions are read and answered by participants. We developed a linguistically localized version of the ToM-L for use with Japanese speakers, and evaluated it by scanning 70 participants. The results showed that this localizer could be used to define individual ToM-related areas, requiring about one-third of the scanning time of the original ToM-L while maintaining its statistical ability to identify individual ToM-related brain regions.
“Reality shock” is defined as the discrepancy between an individual’s expectations established prior to joining to an organization and their perceptions after becoming a member of the organization. The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to measure factors leading to reality shock in first-year teachers, and to confirm its reliability and validity. A scale was developed based on factors leading to realty shock, and a survey was conducted on 219 first-year teachers (90 men, 129 women, mean age 25.18 years). Structure analysis based on factor analysis revealed that this scale consisted of four factors; “inter-personal relations in the workplace”, “lack of experience”, “relationship with students or parents”, and “pressure at work”. Given that high scores of the scale were associated with negative changes in perceptions of work, we showed that the scale was concurrently valid. Multiple regression analysis showed that realty shock significantly influenced stress responses, and that it had particular positive effects on anxiety and depression. Future studies will need to elucidate factors that buffer the effects of reality shock, and develop interventions to prevent worsening mental health in first-year teachers.
This study developed a Japanese version of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2), a measure for a comprehensive assessment of positive body image, and investigated its reliability and validity. The results of confirmatory factor analysis showed that, like the original version, the Japanese BAS-2 had a one-factor structure and invariance across gender. Body appreciation scores had good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity. Furthermore, the scale exhibited incremental validity by predicting psychological elements (disordered eating, self-esteem, and satisfaction with life) above and beyond body dissatisfaction. Thus, the BAS-2 is suitable for the assessment of positive body image in the Japanese population.