Suppressing stereotypic thoughts leads to paradoxical effects (i.e. suppressing a stereotype facilitates the use of the stereotype itself). Recent research on paradoxical effects in stereotype suppression has demonstrated that replacement thoughts decrease its paradoxical effects. This study examined the effectiveness of female counterstereotypes, major non-dominant female stereotypes, and minor non-dominant female stereotypes as replacement thoughts in suppressing dominant female stereotypes. In a lexical decision task, the participants were primed with either female counter-stereotypes, major non-dominant female stereotypes, minor non-dominant female stereotypes, or non-human objects, and thus they were likely to use those that were activated as replacement thoughts. Next, they were given a sentence-stem completion task that served as a manipulation of female stereotype suppression. Finally, they were given another lexical decision task and the response latencies of the stereotypic vs. non-stereotypic words were recorded. The results indicated that regardless of major or minor nondominant female stereotypes as replacement thoughts decreased the paradoxical effects of suppressing dominant female stereotypes. We discussed the way of activation of replacement thoughts and the role of non-dominant stereotypes as replacement thoughts in suppressing dominant stereotypes.
The purpose of this study was to explain the psychological process of exhibiting prosocial behaviors after a person receives gratitude. The results of a preliminary survey indicated that psychological responses are organized into six categories for people who receive gratitude and five categories for those who do not receive it. Participants who participated in this study’s two main surveys completed questionnaires measuring their psychological responses and prosocial behaviors after receiving or not receiving gratitude. Participants in Survey 1 recalled their experiences of receiving or not receiving gratitude from their friends after exhibiting prosocial behaviors, whereas Survey 2 participants recalled their experiences of receiving or not receiving gratitude from strangers. Regression analysis showed that among participants who received gratitude from others, the “affirmative responses to one’s own behavior” promoted a wide variety of prosocial behaviors. Furthermore, a “desire to receive gratitude” promoted prosocial behaviors toward another person after not receiving gratitude.
This study examined three validity types from the Functional Aggression Scale –factorial validity, cross validity, and criterion validity– using data from 382 Japanese juvenile delinquents referred to Japanese family courts. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Functional Aggression Scale consisted of four factors; however, free estimations were determined to be a better fit for the data than limiting the factor loading to 1. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis revealed the same degree of measurement invariance for the four juvenile delinquent characteristics studied (i.e., age, sex, residential area, and level of delinquency). The Wilcoxon rank-sum test for the factor scores indicated that the violent group’s mean scores for three separate factors (influence/coercion, punishment/retaliation, and identity) were significantly higher than those of the nonviolent group. Also, the violent group’s mean avoidance/defense factor score was not significantly higher than the nonviolent group.
This two-part study aimed to examine the effects of temptation coping strategies on self-control when faced with a conflict between academic goals and temptations. The results of Study 1 indicated that the general use of temptation coping strategies promoted goal pursuits. Study 2 investigated whether differences in the difficulty of goal achievement had an effect on the effectiveness of temptation coping strategies. Goal Verification, Temptation Avoidance, and Goal Execution, which are subscales of the Scale of Temptation Coping Strategies in Academic Situations, were effective strategies to facilitate self-control regardless of the difficulty of goal achievement. However, Mood Changing, which is another subscale of the Scale of Temptation Coping Strategies in Academic Situations, was a strategy that did not affect self-control. These findings indicated that the temptation coping strategies were largely effective in academic situations. The implications of adaptive self-control are also discussed.
The purpose of this study was to develop the Japanese version of the Dispositional Greed Scale (J-DGS), and to examine its reliability and validity. The participants in this study were Japanese university students (N = 856). The principal component analysis indicated that the J-DGS had a unidimensional structure and adequate internal consistency. There were positive associations between the J-DGS and envy, psychological entitlement, materialism, impulsive buying behavior, extravagance, and neuroticism. Conversely, J-DGS scores were negatively correlated with self-control, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and agreeableness. These results, which are consistent with previous studies, confirmed the concurrent validity of the J-DGS.
It has been widely documented that egalitarianism motivates people to avoid stereotype use, which in turn facilitates intergroup interactions. However, in addition to perceptions of how the outgroup is perceived by the ingroup (stereotypes), perceptions of how the ingroup is perceived by the outgroup (meta-stereotypes) may also play an important role in intergroup interactions. We hypothesized that when negative meta-stereotypes are perceived, egalitarianism may increase vigilance toward stereotype use by the outgroup, thus exacerbating feelings of anxiety in intergroup interactions. Japanese participants were asked to report how they felt during an intergroup interaction with a Korean confederate, after being exposed to an article documenting positive or negative views Koreans might have of Japanese. The results were consistent with the notion that when negative meta-stereotypes are perceived, participants with high (versus low) egalitarianism experienced more anxiety in the intergroup interaction.
The Social Value Orientation (SVO) explains individual differences in cooperation attitudes. In this study, we examine whether the SVO affects the time taken, and amount of information gathered, when judging the trustworthiness of other people. Participants were able to choose a partner based on the past allocation patterns of candidates, mimicking how people are able to select with whom they cooperate in their social environments. We investigated the effect of the SVO on the method of gathering information on character and choosing a social exchange partner. The results revealed that participants with a prosocial (cooperative) orientation took less time to choose a partner, gathered less information, and tended to choose partners who behaved equally with everyone, compared to participants with an individualistic (selfish) orientation. Our findings suggest that people with a prosocial orientation prefer partners who treat everyone equally, regardless of the relationship, while people with an individualistic orientation deliberately seek out candidates who are likely to provide a relationship which is beneficial to themselves.
Research has suggested that regulatory fit creates value. In this study, the regulatory fit was defined as the fit between the regulatory focus and the advertising messages. We investigated the effects of regulatory fit on the evaluation of messages when familiarity with the message was low. This hypothesis was supported by two observations; when the familiarity with a message was low, regulatory fit was not observed among participants with a prevention focus. In contrast, regulatory fit was observed among participants with a promotion focus, with a higher preference for two-sided advertising. The significance of familiarity on the effects of regulatory fit and value is discussed.
The purpose of this study was to develop the Japanese version of the Disgust Scale-Revised (DS-R-J). The participants were 1063 Japanese people (mean age = 21.64, SD = 7.33, range = 18–77; 581 males and 482 females) and were separated into three different groups. Participants in samples 1 (n = 481) and 2 (n = 492) provided data for examining the factor structure and validity of the DS-R-J. They completed the DS-R-J as well as questionnaires assessing disgust propensity and sensitivity, anxiety sensitivity, state and trait anxiety, affective state, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Participants in sample 3 (n = 90) provided data for estimating the test–retest reliability of the DS-R-J. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the three-factor structure involving core disgust, animal-reminder disgust, and physical and mental contamination disgust. Internal consistency and test–retest reliability were sufficient, and conceptual validity of the DS-R-J was also supported. The results show that the Japanese version of the DS-R-J is a reliable and valid measurement of disgust sensitivity.
When receiving help, the beneficiary feels both emotional gratitude and emotional indebtedness towards the benefactor, highlighting the close relationship between the two feelings. In this study, we tried to create a single integrated model of emotional gratitude and emotional indebtedness. Additionally, based on our model, we tested the effects of emotional gratitude and emotional indebtedness on the intention of reciprocal behavior towards the benefactor. All participants (N = 330) were asked to answer questions after reading vignettes describing a situation in which they received help. As a result of the analysis, we were able to propose a new model in which benefit appraisal mediates the relationship between trait gratitude and emotional gratitude, as well as the relationship between trait indebtedness and emotional indebtedness. We also demonstrated that emotional gratitude and emotional indebtedness affected the intention of reciprocal behavior towards the benefactor; however, their interaction effect was not significant.
It is well known that cognitive fluency affects various attitudes. We demonstrated that a subjective feeling of fluency, induced by repeated exposure to handwritten words, increases the acceptance of persuasive messages. Participants were repeatedly exposed to a set of handwritten words written in Japanese. In a subsequent test phase, they were required to rate the handwritten messages. The results showed that when the personal relevance of the messages was low, repeated exposure facilitated acceptance of messages written by the same person who had written the previously exposed words. This observation implies that we might make irrational decisions according to the ease with which the message can be processed, rather than according to the validity of message content.
Literature in the field of regulatory focus theory argues that individuals who are promotion-focused increativity-related tasks are more successful than those who are prevention-focused. However, recent studies have shown that prevention-focused individuals are persistent when solving tasks, potentially leading to improved task performance. This study, which considered two kinds of regulatory focus (chronic/situational), investigated the hypothesis that prevention-focused individuals employ a persistent style when performing creative tasks. A Japanese version of the Remote Associates Test (RAT) was used as a creative task, and subjective depletion after the RAT, as well as the time spent deciding to skip RAT items, were measured as indicators of persistence. The results showed that both chronic and situational prevention focuses made participants more depleted than did the promotion focus. Furthermore, in the situational promotion-focus condition, chronic prevention focus made participants more depleted and lengthened the time taken to skip items. Thus, chronic prevention focus promoted persistence in a regulatory nonfit condition (i.e., situational promotion focus).