We examined the hypothesis that the effect of signaling on students' prose comprehension is significant only when structure strategies are deficient during production. Participants included first-year high school students (N = 120, mean age 16.0) and university students (N = 120, mean age 20.8). Students' tendencies to use structure strategies were evaluated and classified as lower-structure (LS) or upper-structure (US) strategy using the median (23 high school students and 25 university students). Participants performed sentence arrangement, recall, and reconstruction tasks. Each task consisted of expository sentences with or without signaling. The results indicated the following: (a) Signaling facilitated structure identification in organizational processes in the US strategy group of high school students, which improved their prose comprehension, whereas no effects were evident in the LS strategy group. (b) An identical effect was seen in the LS strategy group of university students, whereas it was not observed in the US strategy group. These results support our hypothesis. The boundary conditions for the effect of signaling on students' prose comprehension are discussed from the perspective of the production deficiency in structure strategy.
This study aimed to examine the crime scene behavior and general characteristics of individuals who commit product-tampering crimes related to food. In total, 121 cases of product tampering that occurred in Japan from 1981 to 2016, in which the offender was arrested, underwent cross-table analysis and multiple correspondence analysis. The results identified five types of product-tampering crimes that differed according to the foreign matter used: “use of a needle or something similar”; “use of bits of metal or something similar”; “use of medication, including psychotropic drugs”; “use of an agrichemical or pesticide”; and “use of a detergent”. The crime scene behaviors and characteristics of the offenders differed according to the foreign matter used, and such differences may relate to the type of adulterant that is mixed into the food or drink. The findings of this study will be useful for systematizing product-tampering crimes and will contribute to food-defense and product-tampering criminal investigations.
The Caregiving System Scale (CSS: Shaver, Mikulincer, & Shemesh-Iron, 2010) was recently developed measure designed to assess the individual differences in the caregiving internal working model. The purpose of the present study was to translate the CSS into Japanese (CSS-J) and evaluate its validity and reliability. To accomplish this, we conducted four studies. In Study 1 (n = 600), we translated the CSS and replicated its two-factor model based on confirmatory factor analysis. After that, in Study 2 (n = 315), we examined the correlations between the CSS and other variables for criterion-related validation. In Study 3 (n = 229), we determined that previous helping success or failure experiences influenced a person’s current anxiety and avoidance levels, as measured by the CSS-J. In Study 4 (n = 31), we examined the test-retest reliability of the CSS-J among some participants from Study 3. The results of these four studies confirmed the validity and reliability of the CSS-J. We concluded that the CSS-J is useful for studying the various aspects of helping and attachment theory.
This study developed a motivational regulation strategies scale for cooperative learning, and examined the relationships among strategies, motivational factors, and engagements. First, a self-reported questionnaire with open-ended questions was administered to 261 undergraduates, and 46 items were developed for the motivational regulation strategies scale. Next, a self-reported questionnaire pertaining to these items was administered to 284 undergraduates. A factor analysis indicated a five-factor structure for motivational regulation strategies in cooperative learning. The results of a partial correlation analysis among these strategies, self-efficacy, and intrinsic value supported the construct validity of the scale. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that behavioral engagement was positively correlated with strategies to enhance a sense of duty, self-efficacy, and intrinsic value. Emotional engagement was positively correlated with active interaction strategies, strategies for structuring learning activities, and intrinsic value, and was negatively correlated with strategies to enhance a sense of duty. The effect of motivational regulation strategies on cooperative learning is discussed based on the present findings.