The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between attachment needs toward an ex-partner and transition of stage of relationship dissolution. People who experienced relationship dissolution within the previous year that was initiated by their ex-partner were eligible for this study. Based on the results of the latent rank theory, the participants were divided into three ranks. Results of the multiple logit model suggested that the selective probability of rank 3 to rank 2 was associated among attachment needs toward ex-partner, attachment anxiety, remorsefully attitude of ex-partner, and selective probability of rank 2 to rank 1 was associated with attachment needs toward the ex-partner and a sincere attitude of the ex-partner. These results showed that attachment needs toward an ex-partner is an important factor for the transition to stage of romantic dissolution similar to attachment style.
Correlations between the type of regulatory focus orientation and performance levels were investigated from the perspective of conserving cognitive resources. University students (N = 64) participated in the experiment. They were induced to have a promotion- or prevention-focused orientation and were required to conduct a lower priority task followed by a higher priority task. Results indicated that when the prevention-focused orientation was activated, participants did not spend much effort to achieve lower priority tasks and the performance level was lower compared to when the promotion-focused orientation was activated. It was considered that the intention for conserving cognitive resources increased because the prevention-focused participants knew that they would be engaging in a higher priority task in the future. Conversely, these same participants demonstrated higher performance in higher priority tasks implemented later, compared to when the promotion-focused orientation was activated. The above results suggest that cognitive resources are allocated intentionally under prevention-focused conditions.
The aim of this study was to investigate why certain youths identify with delinquent groups by examining specific factors that increase identification with them, such as intergroup relationships. Specifically, we hypothesized that the permeability of group boundaries would moderate the effect of group discrimination on identification with a delinquent group. In total, 96 male youths were recruited from four juvenile classification homes. The results revealed that youths who perceived group boundaries with lower compared with higher permeability cognitively identified with delinquent groups more strongly when perceiving group discrimination from teachers or the police; this finding supported our hypothesis. No other significant interaction effect was observed. Conversely, in terms of affective identification, we found an unexpected interaction between the permeability of group boundaries and group discrimination from peers. Overall, the findings did not support our hypothesis. However, some of the results suggest that delinquent youths may be able to decrease cognitive group identification by having friends outside of the delinquent group, even if they experienced discrimination from conformity groups such as teachers and the police.
Despite having positive attitudes about crime prevention behaviors, many people do not engage in actions to prevent crime. In this study, therefore, we tried to explain the gap between attitudes and behaviors from the perspective of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). In Study 1, female undergraduate and graduate students (N = 302) answered a questionnaire containing TPB variables (attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and perceived control). In Study 2, a web-based survey constructed from TPB variables was conducted with mothers (N = 725) that had children aged 7–12 years. Results of the structural equation modeling indicated that the fitness of model to the data was good in both studies. In Study 1, subjective norm and self-efficacy facilitated behavioral intention, which in turn led to personal crime prevention behavior. In Study 2, attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and perceived control facilitated behavioral intention, which resulted in cooperative crime prevention. These findings suggest that in order to encourage crime prevention behavior, we should take into account not only attitudes but also subjective norms and self-efficacy.
We often encounter various anomalous behaviors of systems, such as machine failures, unexpected behaviors of intelligent agents, and irregular natural phenomena. In order to predict these anomalous behaviors, it is a useful strategy to infer the causal structure of target domains (the inference-based strategy). However, we assume another strategy, the memory-based strategy, to memorize the anomalous behaviors for the predictions. In the present study, we analyzed the features and benefits of the memory-based strategy using the spatial movement prediction task. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that participants who were instructed to apply the memory-based strategy encoded only the anomalous instances, and not the regular instances. Additionally, the inference-based strategy was more effective for identifying the anomalous instances in a low-complexity task, whereas the memory-based strategy was more effective in a high-complexity task. Experiment 3 revealed that it was difficult to spontaneously select an appropriate strategy based on task complexity and to make benefits of the memory-based strategy for a high-complexity task even if the strategy was applied.
In this study, we proposed three image analysis methods (wavelet transform, singular value decomposition, and Fourier transform) to evaluate drawings of the tree test quantitatively, and demonstrated the analyses to three images of the tree test drawn by schizophrenic patients. Wavelet analysis suggested that information about the position of drawn trees (direction, depth and width of drawn lines) can be captured. Fourier analysis suggested that information about the direction and depth of drawn lines can be captured. Singular value decomposition suggested that information about the position and direction of drawn lines can be captured. Further research is needed to consider the features of mathematical image analysis in detail, and apply them to analysis of the tree test.
Previous studies have shown that the physical movements of participants influence creativity thinking. We examined whether another type of movements (bigger or smaller arm movements) modulates creative idea productions. In Experiment 1 participants were required to generate new names for rice after performing bigger or smaller arm movements. Bigger arm movements were associated with more divergent idea productions (e.g., non-typical ideas) compared to smaller arm movements. In Experiment 2, another task was used to generate as many ideas as possible for creative gifts the participants might give to an acquaintance, and the results showed the possibility that bigger arm movements led to more flexible idea generation than did smaller one. Taken together, the current study suggested the size of movements modulated creative thinking: bigger ones increased divergent creative thinking, possibly because bigger physical movements facilitate the divergent cognitive processing mode.
This study investigated the effect of the type of backchannel utterances (BU) on idea generation. Three types of BU were affirmative, neutral, and non-affirmative. Two categories of task were predicting consequences and devising resolutions. Thirty undergraduate students participated in the present experiment. Dependent variables were the number of ideas generated, speaking time, motivation of speakers, and speakers’ perception of listeners’interest in, agreement with, and admiration of speakers’ ideas. The main results were as follows: (a) affirmative BU was significantly effective for idea generation only in the prediction task, and (b) affirmative BU was effective for other dependent variables in both tasks. These findings showed the effectiveness of affirmative BU as a strategy for facilitating idea generation. The interaction of BU type and task was interpreted in terms of the possibility that the two kinds of tasks involved different thinking processes. Because the interaction was found only for idea generation, it was suggested that BU had two influencing pathways: increasing motivation through positive affect and activating idea generation itself.
Working memory (WM) is a capacity-limited cognitive system that strongly relates to higher-order cognitive abilities including fluid intelligence. It has been suggested that WM training can increase memory capacity, which in turn, improves general intellectual abilities. To evaluate these claims, the present review critically re-assessed nine meta-analysis studies, and revealed that the effect of WM training on fluid intelligence (Gf), executive function, and academic performance is relatively small (averaged Hedges’ adjusted g < .20). Moreover, there were several methodological issues regarding the study design (placebo effect, small sample size), analytical approach (inadequate group comparison, lack of correction for multiple comparisons), and theoretical framework (lack of theoretical account of the training mechanisms) in previous WM training studies. We propose a set of recommendations for future training studies that go beyond training the WM ability per se. This includes theoretically possible methods to enhance intellectual abilities by, for example, learning strategies to effectively encode and recall information into long-term memory.