At the 2020 annual meeting of The Society of Risk Analysis Japan, we hosted a special session focusing on novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as an emerging risk. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the regulatory science perspective is very important as countermeasures have to be decided in a very limited time and without sufficient scientific knowledge. The objective of the session was to discuss the contribution of risk science to countermeasures against COVID-19. The topics were as follows: (1) science and policy under the risk governance; (2) risk assessment at mass gathering events; (3) regulatory science of the infection risk management and the regulatory framework issue; (4) comparison of mortality risk and economic impact.
A planning session was held at the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, Japan, with the aim of sorting out the similarities and differences between the Fukushima disaster and the COVID-19 pandemic, and discussing the implications for social policy. This paper reports on the planning session, entitled “Thinking about COVID-19 from Fukushima and Fukushima from COVID-19.” This paper reports on the topics including “Risk perception, psychological distress and social division at the Fukushima disaster and COVID-19 pandemic,” “Why Japanese people pursuit null-risk?: Lessons learned from the two disasters,” “Risk perception and resilience among mothers: Data from the Fukushima nuclear accident and COVID-19 pandemic,” and “Perspectives on societal risk trade-offs: Nuclear accident /pandemic.” Although the disaster and the pandemic have different characteristics, it was confirmed that there are many findings that need to be shared regarding various individual and societal risk issues, risk trade-offs, and measures to recognize and adapt to these risks. The significance of interdisciplinary and bird’s eye view disaster risk research across disaster types and disciplines was highlighted.
This paper showed the audit risk of financial statements for the fiscal year ending March 31, 2020. Many companies did not significantly delay their normal audit schedules in the Covid-19 disaster. They emphasized the timeliness of the information. As a result, auditors had to perform their work online. To date, no accounting fraud has been detected this fiscal year. However, as Lamberta et al. (2017) demonstrated, time pressure has a negative impact on earnings quality. We must explore this audit quality.
Since airborne transmission has been considered as a possible infection route for the novel coronavirus in addition to contact and droplet infection routes, ventilation is an important measure against airborne route. In this paper, we describe the history of setting regulatory standard values and the interpretation of CO2 concentration as a measure against infectious diseases. Although the standard value of 1,000 ppm is not intended originally for infection control, it is practically useful as a guide value for potential infection risk management.
Emerging information technologies are rapidly growing and expected to change the social systems drastically. This study investigated the relationships between knowledge and risk perceptions regarding new technologies such as AI, machine learning, self-driving, and VR. We conducted an online survey and measured the risk perception and basic scientific knowledge and domain specific knowledge (subjective and objective knowledge regarding emerging information technologies). The results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that the interactive effect of subjective and objective domain specific knowledge was significant. Participants who rated higher in both of subjective and objective knowledge perceived lower risk than other participants. Basic scientific knowledge was correlated with objective knowledge but not significant predictor of risk perception. The explanatory power of the knowledge factors was lower than institutional trust.