Today, rural communities in Japan are on the brink of a ruin, and the rapidly deteriorating social conditions there have exerted a harmful influence on the health of farmers. During the work for protecting health of the inhabitants in a village of Ehime Prefecture, it was noticed that a considerably low level of community health has reflected on the high frequency of anemia. It is noteworthy that most of the anemic cases result from overwork and unbalanced nutrition caused by poverty. In our last investigation on 1389 inhabitants, anemia was found in 28.0% of the male adults, 25.7% of the female adults, 40% of the old people. The mean hemoglobin level was 14.58±1.63 in the male adults, and 12.57±1.51 in the female adults. It is urgently necessary to take effective measures to correct the situation. As causal factors, we can enumerate distorted dietary life, overwork, and physiological phenomena peculiar to women, such as pregnancy and delivery, in the case of women; and overwork, a general decline of bone marrow functions, and the secondary anemia caused by other diseases in the case of old people. The establishment of a system of community health control is needed more than anything else.
An examination of anemia has been carried out for 466 pupils of Aiji Elementary School and Aiji Lower Secondary School in Hiromicho, Ehime Prefecture. The cases of anemia became more and more frequent as the age of the pupils advanced, and this, we think, is closely connected with the distorted dietary life which is forced upon the people in rural areas in Japan by the repid change of living conditions there. For measures to counter the frequent occurrence of anemia among pupils it is most important to establish a close cooperation between the school health protection and the community health protection and to pursue the community program of health protection.
We used a scanning electron microscope for identification of the two ticks which were found parasitic on two women. (1) The patients were women of 69 and 62 years old.The main complaints were a tumour-formation on the skin of the upper abdominal region with itching in one case and the pain at the cicatrice of a past operation of the chest in another.In both cases a purulent inflamation appeared after 7 to 10 days at the site of bite and healed after 10 to 14 days with pigmentation. (2) In our study through a scanning electron microscope we examined the morphological characters of marginal body setae, porose area, internal as well as external spurs of coxa I, and genital pore. The scanning electron microscope was effective especially to observe marginal body setae, spiracular plate, and internal as well as external spurs of coxa I, which are important for discriminating Ixodes nipponensis from Ixodes persulcatus. We would expect that the morphological and physiological study of Ixodes species will develop hereafter concurrently with the parasitism of man by Ixodes nipponensis from the epidemiological standpoint.
The auther investigated a few points in the controle for cardiovascular diseases in rural areas. The results can be summarized as follows; 1) Many of the examined had been taken their blood pressure for the first time, and many suffering from the hypertension had not known that they were hypertensive. 2) It seemed that the response rates to the examination were influenced not by the staff of the examining team or the content of the examination, but by the duration of the examination or the number of the places offering it.So the method and the content of the examination should be settled according to the circumstance of the areas. 3) The health consultation should be started with the mass examination, and be offered continuously after it. It is indispensable to give the health education to their family.
Today, many villages in Japan are rapidly declining as a result of the policy of the Japanese government aiming at the growth of monopoly capital. Shimo-Ono is one of such villages, with 184 houses and 731 inhabitants. We would report the progress of the regional examinations carried out in this village for these nine years and discuss about the necessity of the communal system of health protection, the actual state of health destruction and the countermeasures to be taken against this, and the problems imposed upon future regional examinations.