A study was performed on the role of glutathione during Poisoning caused by organophosphoric agricultural chem icals (alkylphosphates) and on the mechanism of glutathione in human blood, dinically and experimentally also. The value of glutathione inblood was measured by Alloxan 305method. The results obtained can besummarized as follows. 1) The value of total gultathione in blood was40.80±2.09mg/dl in healthy persons, 37.80±1.26mg/dl in acute poisoning of parathione and 38.7 0±1.26mg/dl in chronic poisning of it. 2) Treatment of acute parathione poisoning with glutathione (600mg a day, for two daysi.v.) was effective from the view-pojnt of the increase of serum ChE activity. 3) Treatment of chronic parathione poisoning with glutathione (300mg a day, for 4 weeks oral) was veryeffective from the view-point of serum ChE activity. 4) Mechanism of gultathione during poisoning of organophosphoric agricultural chemicals was researched clinically and experimentally. From the results of them, the value of total gultathione and serum ChE showed the rapid increase in blood by an intravenous injection of gultathione, but not such increase by mouth even after 120 minutes. 5) From the investigation in time course after given by i.v.or mouth, gultathione, taken into blood, was foundrather in blood cell than serum, specially by an intravenous injection of it.
A study was performed on twenty-two cases diagnosed as chronic intoxication of Alkylphosphates, living in the rural sections of Aomori prefecture.The results obtaind can be summarized as follows: (I) Many clinial examination were done to find out some characteristic findings ofchronic intoxication of Alkylphosphates. In order to do this investigation, further, other elements were researched, such as the past history, kind of work (scattering or mixing) kind of pesticides, using different methods, any complaint and exact symptome.From those analyses, several characteristic findings were found as follows: 1-The difference between men and women was not found. 2-Age was from 30 to 65 years old. 3-The period of the use of organophosphoric agricultural chemicals was from 10 to 15 years. 4-68.1% of them were farmers scattering by personal operation, not by co-operation. Only one of them wasa specialist of mixing pesticides. 5-50%of them had no complaint, 18%of them felt fatigue or had angina pectoris-like symptome.4.5% of them diziness and other symptomes. 6-68.1%of them had low serum ChE rate underΔph0.60, and 90.9%of them low serum ChE rate underΔph0.68, but no one had the nomal ChE level. 7-20%of them had pathological level of liver function tests, such as TTT and ZTT, together with a low serum ChE rate. 8-All of them showed a normal serum protein level. 9-From plasma protein fraction results, 77.2%of them had a high A/G rate, and 81.8%of them a clear low al-globulin rate. The latter is a very important finding for the diagnosis of this disease: 10-The majority of them had a lower rate of blood total Glutathione than the healthy persons. 11-Red cell sedimenttations rate, serum cholesterol, BSP test were within normal limits, electrocardiogram also. 12-Treatment of five chronic Parathion poisoning cases with Glutathione (300mg a day, for 4 weeks, oral Kudo's method) was very effective from the view points of serum ChE activity. (II) From the investigation of frequency of this disease 3.1%of 190 farmers, using organo-phosphoric agricultural chemicals had some characteristic findings or symptomes even if they had not any complaint. (III) In order to find out such intoxication cases clinically, it is very necessary to research many elements as shown above, like the exact and systematic Kudo's group examination method which follows: 1-We filled in cards many elements and informations about the farmers work or use of pesticides. 2-First of all, we draw about 5 ml of blood of the farmers and we measured the serum ChE rate as by screening, also we performed many clinical examinations. 3-Also we determined the cell ChE rate and the total blood ChE rate by special method (DTNB method). 4-We investigated carefully each case one by one whether these cases fit to the important and necessary conditions or elements. 5-After this examination, we investigated again about the past history, kinds of work, period of using agricultural chemicals and kinds of pesticides exactly. 6-So, by this exact and careful examination, we were able to find out in some cases a chronic intoxication of Alkylphosphates.
In this study, we analyzed and investigated the 93 cases of agricultural accidents by machines about which we could get information of that occurred in the prefecture of Toyama in 1971. (1) The injured in these accidents were 90 in nummber. 33 of them are now suffering from lasting damage and 11 of them are not clear in thire condition. It is the most important subject for the promotion of agricultural that 37% of them are suffering from lasting damages. (2) When these accidents are classsfied by the kinds of machines, 36 cases in these accidents occurred by combine, 14 cases by trailer, 11 cases by riding-tractor, 9 cases by binder, 8 cases by walking-tractor and 15 cases by others, Accidents by combine formed 39% of all accidents. This percentage is higher than 32% in 1970. This fact indicates that the safety measure of combine must be considered. (3) The causes of accidents is mainly in the human factor.This is proved by the fact that 74 (84% in injured) get hurt by the carelessness and the unskilled operations of machines. (4) The accidents of which main causes come from machine is only 8 cases (about 9%) in all, and this menber is small against our expectation.As it be shown in the accidents by combine, accidents from carelessness while supplementary operations has intimate relation to a subconscious causes of an imperfect function of machines. The accidents of this kind may be preveuted by the improvement of machines. (5) About a half of the accidents by combines cut off the farmer's fingers. It will affect his work in the future. These accidents can be classified in two or three kinds. In order to check these accidents, it is natural that we must improve the function and the safety of the machines. (6) About a half of the accidents by riding-tractor occurred while preparatory work in the barn, for example, exchanged the attachment or the wheels. The complete direction for handling the heary things and for using the tools must be done. (7) Most of the accidents by walking-tractor while trawmited on a farm road. In many of these accident farmers fingers were cut off by touching to running belt. We indicate that it must be legally regulated to cover the belt and the flywheel of the engine. (8) 9 cases in 14 accidents by trailer occurred while trailer was running, especially on ordinary roads. Trailer is not only agricultural machine, but also a kind of vehicle. So it is necessary to attach the eqwpments for running, for example, bachmirrors and direction-indicators.
A paddy field dermatitis of unknown etiology has occurred among the inhabitants in the eastern region of Saitama Prefecture.It has been designated locally by such term as “Kayui-Kayui-byo” which means an itching disease. In order to ascertain the cause of the disease, the epidemiological investigations have been made since 1967. The dermatitis breaks out generally in the farmers working in paddy fields and is characterized by erythromatopapulo-vesicular eruptions accompanied which severe itching.The chief symptoms are observed on the parts exposed to water, especially on forearms and lower legs. The dermatitis occurrs from mid-May to early in July when rice-planting is on.The epidemiological and clinical findings suggest that the dermatitis is quite similar to that of already known bird schistosomes and that it is probably caused by the invasion of bird schistosome cercariae into the human skin.