Investigation on the working time, energy expenditure and fatigue were carried out for members of three families engaged principally in raising silk worms. Group examinations of physical conditions and blood constituents and survey of nutritional intake were performed on the residents, including the above families, in a community in Fukueisland, Nagasaki-prefecture. The results were as follows; 1) The average values of energy expenditure on a most busy day in a raising period of silk worm calculated to be 3150 kcal (max. 3500 kcal) for males, 2340 kcal (max. 2890 kcal) for females of the above three families. Their working times on this day were about 14 hours. 2) The physical fatigue of the subjects was estimated by means of Fliker frequency, near point and threshold of patellar reflex. Remarkable changes of these values were found, suggesting the heavy physical load of the raising works, and the changes were more remarkable in olders and females than in youngers and males. 3) Donaggio's reaction and Na/K in the first urine of morning were investigated at an interval of five days during one period of silk worm raising. The Donaggio's reaction values were increased about two times higher in the latter term, on the other hand Na/K dropped in the former term of the period. 4) The group examinations of the inhabitants in the community showed that the body fat of silk raising farmers were fewer than that of the farmers engaged in other kinds of farming reported by the present authors. Blood values (Ht, Hb and TP) of them in 1975 were lower than in 1974, because one more raising period was added and so the physical load of them might be greater in '75 than in '74. 5) The nutritional intakes of silk raising farmers were almost as same as these of the farmers in other districts.
A questionnaring was conducted on farmers in Akita Prefecture who went in for sports in the intervals of farming. Notably one group of farmers who answered that they took regular exercise showed the following results: 1. The self-consciousness of being healthy and having good physical fitness is by far more intense in this group than in the groups of farmers who took irregular or occasional excercises. 2. The chief reasons why they continued to practice sports were: a. that they had developed closer friendship among them through sporting activities. b. that they obtained a good understanding and cooperation from the rest of the family members. c. that they had leisure time. 3. To find time for sports they saved, above all else, their farming hours, indoor leisure time and homekeeping hours. 4. General endurance, agility and balance were the top three qualities of physical fitness that the greatest number of the farmers referred to as essential to modern farming. Further inquiry will be required into sports which might help to develop these qualities.
For the purpose to clarify the industrial fatigue and causative factors, the health examinations and the investigations of daily life were made to 138 workingwomen in a cotton-yarn factory in the rural district. 1) Comparing with other occupations, the fatigue in workingwomen was generally severe, especially in the middle-aged women who engaged in an agricultural labor besides the labor in the factory. As for the characteristics of their fatigue, the mental fatigue was more predominant than the physical fatigue. The results of Flicker test, autonomic nerve function test and urine creatinin test revealed the alternate shift working system in the factory was one of the causative factors which was responsible for the fatigue of the workingwomen. 2) The health examination revealed the high prevalence of anemia. The occurrence of the mild hypertension, the localized muscle fatigue and low back pain were also noteworthy. The investigations on the workingwomen's daily lives revealed that they engaged in an agricultural labor and households early in the morning or in the holidays, and worked for 8.6 hours in the average, and 16 hours in the maximum. In addition to the industrial fatigue, the burdens of the agricultural labor and the households got worse the health conditions of the workingwomen. In the rural district it becomes very important to promote the comprehensive health care activities from the both sides of community health care system and occupational health care system.
While there are not any effective antidotes for paraquat poisoning up to this time, several procedures such as gastric lavage, dosing of emetics and adsorbents, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and hemoperfusion have been applied in treatment of paraquat intoxication. In this study, we determined efficacy of the combined application of oral administration of an adsorbent (Adsorbin) and hemoperfusion using activated charcoal (HEMOSORBA: activated charcoal coated collodion, The ASAHI Medical Co.) in dogs being given orally paraquat in the amount of 40 mg per kg of the body weight. Efficacy of the treatments was in order of the combined application of dosing Adsorbin and the hemoperfusion with Hemosorba, single use of dosing Adsorbin and single application of the hemoperfusion. Oral administration of the adsorbent was carried out only once, either one hour or three hours after forced dosing of paraquat, and the hemoperfusion was started either one or three hours after paraquat dosing and continued for six hours in each case. Effectiveness of the treatment on the survival-time was superior in the case of dosing the adsorbent and starting the hemoperfusion one hour after paraquat administration. As a sign of developing lung fibrosis was found on histopathological observation in dogs survived for twenty days after starting the experiment, even in case of the combined treatment with the best results, observation of longer period seems to be necessary for obtaining more information after treatment. And it is furthermore advisable that the treatment, especially the hemoperfusion, should be continued or carried out more than one time until the concentration of paraquat in blood plasma decreases to the safe level.
DDT, one of the residual organochlorine pesticides, has been still used in China and perhaps in developing countries of the equatorial hemisheric zone. Therefore, wild and cultured yellowtails were selected as the indices of DDT residue levels of the marine fishes, considered a main source of the residue in the general population of Japan. Total DDT level of wild one, large type of fishes distributed from South China Sea to nearly north end of Hokkaido in latitude, increased severalf old during two years from Feb.-Mar. 1979 to Mar. 1981. Consequently, the levels of total DDT in wild yellowtail were higher than those in cultured one in 1981. It is noteworthy that especially three wild fishes catched from Nagasaski area were not only high in the levels, but low in the ratio of pp-DDE plus pp-DDD per total DDT. It is suspected that they were going forward to North with the Japan Current. Close relations were recognized among DDT residues, PCB patterns and sea areas catched, and marked differences of the residue levels were observed on account of the areas. Furthermore, slight increase was also recognized about the level of cultured type in 1981 compared to the samples in 1979. On the other hand, the level of dieldrin was higher in the cultured one than the wild as well as in the two years before.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of and to classify the types of silicosis patients who were working at that time as migrant workers in the eastern part of Toyama Prefecture. Migrant workers are known in Japanese as “dekasegi” This term refers to workers who migrate seasonally from their home towns to areas where work is more available. Questionnaires were sent to all male inhabitants aged 30 or over in the selected five areas. Eighty-seven percent of the questionnaires were answered and returned. Based on the results, 482 inhabitants were selected as migrant workers with experience in jobs where they were exposed to large amount of dust. Chest roentgenography and subjective symptoms were examined in these subjects. The results obtained were follows; (1) Eight hundred and eighty-five of the respondents (41%) had worked as migrant workers.Of these, 580 men (66%) had worked in jobs with exposure to dust. (2) Of the 482 migrant workers whose jobs exposed them to dust, 424 silicosis cases (88%) were found by chest roentgenographic examination. Silicosis is classified into four types according to the national Pneumoconiosis Law on the basis of chest roentgenographic findings. These patients included 195 cases of type 1, 123 cases of type 2, 59 cases of type 3 and 47 cases of type 4 silicosis. (3) The prevalence of disease symptoms in the silicosis patients included ; cough 39%, phlegm 40%, shortness of breath 41%, palpitations 17% and wheezing in 20% of the cases. The silicosis patients showed a higher frequency of respiratory disease symptoms than those dust-exposed workers who did not evidence signs of silicosis. (4) The silicosis patients were found in 98% of the migrant workers whose exposure to dust lasted a period of more than 20 years, 89% in men whose work was between 10 and 19 years and 76 % in men who had worked less than 10 years. (5) The silicosis in 297 cases (70% of the total number of disease patients) was first detected during the examinations in the course of this research.
This is a review of the results of mass screenings for early detection of stomach diseases conducted during the past 10 years from 1971 to 1980 and similar disease prevention schemes undertaken by 25 prefectures in 1980. The materials we used are the statistics presented at the 1981 general meeting of the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine and the 1979 and 1980 survey findings on mass screenings prepared by the Japanese Society of Adult Disease Prevention. 1. The number of people who receivea group stomach examination during a year increased from 128, 169 in 1971 to 274, 905 in 1980. 2. Of the total number of persons who underwent stomach checkups during 1980, 16.0% were urged to get intensive medical examination. 3. Those who actually got intensive exams accounted for 76.3% of those tho were required to receive such exams. This ratio varies greatly from 27.0% to 92.9% according to prefectures. 4. Stomach cancer was found in 255 people. This represents 0.093% of the total number of the examinees and includes 113 persons with early gastric cancer (44.1% of the total stomach cancer cases). Among other diseases detected in the mass screenings are gastro-polyp (1, 151 cases, 0.42%), gastric ulcers (2, 301 cases, 0.84%) and duodenal ulcers (1, 285 cases, 0.47%). Altogether, 13, 730 or 4.99% of the total number of the examinees were found that they have ailments. 5. The methods employed in mass screening, intensive medical examination, procedures after examination and follow-up study differ from prefecture to prefecture. So it is difficult to obtain the exact picture of health conditions of rural inhabitants from the data we used.