In order to improve the ladders used in apple cultivation from the viewpoint of human engineering, the kinds of ladder used in the Tsugaru area and the fatigue condition when using these ladders were investigated by means of a questionnaire. The author received answers from 196 houses (281 people) and obtained the following conclusions. 1. The ladders most frequently used in apple cultivation are made of wood, are about 200cm long, and are sold on the market ; the second most frequently used type is 233 cm long. There was no variety in using condition, though the geographical features of the terrain were different. 2. Most people used rubber boots on the ladder. More of them complained of fatigue in the back parts of legs than in the front parts. 3. 36 % of the men and 24 % of the women felldown from the ladder at least one year during apple cultivation. The incidence was higher for people in their twenties, but the rate decreased as the age increased, to increase again for people in their sixties. 4. The three main suggestions for improvement are to make the ladder lighter, to deepen the surface of the rungs and to make the whole design sturdier.
The author analysed the position and movements of the feet and the whole body during ladder work in apple cultivation, and obtained the following conclusions. 1, The chief postures on the ladder are front-facing position, backward-facing position, side-ways position, straddled position, and split-level position (with one foot a step higher than the other) in all these positions the body faces the same way as the feet. 2, On these postures, the front-facing position and the side-ways position are used the most frequently, but cannot be maintained very long. To maintain the same posture on the ladder, most people prefer to straddle the ladder or to stand on its highest rung. Therefore, almost the same amount of time is spent standing on the top rungs as on the middle and bottom rungs. 3, It was found that the body should be supported by both plantars, lower legs, upper legs and hips during work on the middle and lower rungs of the ladder. When working on the higher or highest rungs, most people straddle the ladder or stand on the tiptoe. To decrease the work load, it is necessary to increase the stability of the ladder and to make the ladders able to support the body by 2 points
The author studied the effect of surface EMG of the antigravity muscles of the lower limbs in the most common body posture and foot position on commercially available ladders. The following results were obtained. 1. The activity of M. gastrocnemius increases in the frontfacing position when the arms are raised. The activity of the flexor and extensor muscles of the thigh increases in the frontfacing or backward-facing position if the lower leg touches the ladder. 2. The antigravity muscles of the lower limbs are more strenuously in the backward-facing position than in the front-facing position. 3. The side-ways position and front-facing position result in more or less the same muscular activity, but the activity of the extensor and flexor muscles of the thigh increases in the splitlevel or straddled position. 4. The activity of M. gastrocnemius increases when the arch of the transverse axis rests on the rungs, and the activity of the flexor and extensor muscles of the thigh increases when the heel supports the body. There are significant differences between the front and backward-facing positions when the body rests on the arch area; in other words, the activity of M. gastrocnemius increases in the front-facing position and the activity of the thigh muscles increases in the backward-facing position.
To lighten the work load in apple cultivation, the author investigated the desirable depth of the surface of the ladder rungs, the following ressults were obtained. 1, The use of the wooden ladders soled on the market, induces not only a prominant change of the foot arch but also the instability of the whole body, it also increases the activity of the antigravity muscle of lower limbs. 2, The morphological changes of the antigravity muscle of lower limbs while standing on 5 kinds of wooden rungs (15, 12, 9, 6, and 3cm deep) were compared with the basis when standing on awooden rung 20cm deep. The results indicate that the desirable depth of wooden rungs is over 9cm. 3. To increase the weight of the ladder as little as possible and to ensuce smooth working conditions when standing in the sideways position or resting on the arch of the transverse axis or on the heel, the depth of the rung should be about 6cm.
In the present study, we undertook the investigation into skin hazards caused by pesticides on farmers in citrus fruit area in Ehime Prefecture from May to September, 1981. 1) 71.4% in males and 68.5% in females were recognized to have had the contact dermatitis due to pesticides. Dithianone, maneb and manzeb were pesticides which frequently caused skin lesions. 2) The incidence rate of skin hazards caused by spraying pesticides was 0% in males and 3.8% in females in May, 8.2% in males and 13.0% in females in June, and increased to 26.0% in males and 50.0% in females in July. 3) The highest incidence rate on skin lesions due to pesticides in July were observed in farmers who had been engaged in the spraying, and the next dangerous work was the thinning out the superfluous fruits, followed by weeding and so forth. 4) Positive reaction of patch testing was revealed in 0%, 18.8% and 50.0%, with 0.01%, 0.1% and 0.5% preparations of dithianone, and negative reactions were revealed with preparations of thiophanate-methyl, maneb and manzeb, respectively. These observations suggest that the mechanism of skin lesions due to pesticides was mainly the primary irritating type of contact dermatitis, and that spraying in combination with several pesticides, sweating and hard sunlight take part in skin lesions.
The survey was done in a district where the mechanization of agriculture had advanced and part-time farming had been prevailing. Agricultural accidents, picked up from the insurance documents of the Agricultural Cooperative Association from 1977 to 1981, were analyzed statistically. Results obtained are as follows. 1, The agricultural machines related to accidents were two-wheel tractors, combines, grass cutters and four-wheel tractors. These four types of machines occupied 72% of all accidents. 2. The accidents were observed most frequently in busy seasons i. e. spring and autumn, and from 10 to 11 a.m. and 3 to 5 p.m. in a day. 3. Because of part-time farming, one third of the accidents occured on Sundays and national holidays. 4. The accidents by two-wheel tractors and four-wheel tractors occured on the road, 67% and 49% respectively. There occured 86% of the accidents by combines in the field, and 85% of the injuries by combines were on hands and fingers. The injuries by grass cutters occured frequontly on legs and eyes, 58% and 18% respectively. One third of the eye injuries resulted in anopsia. 5. There were few overlaps between the cases collected by the prefectural office and those from the insurance documents. Slight-injury cases were scarcely found in the insurance documents. These facts indicate the present information-collecting systems for the agricultural accidents are incomplete in this district.
The purpose of this report is to clarify urologic problems in rural districts. The number of patients who visited our clinic for these 10 years were 7, 313 as new outpatient and 1802 as inpatient. Three main diseases of rural area were acute inflammation of lower urinary tract, benign prostatic hypertrophy and lithiasis of upper urinary tract. Infection of lower urinary tract and aggravation of malignant tumors might be influenced by rural works and bad circumstances. Monthly distribution of patients was also under the influence of rural works.
During these 10 years from 1973 to 1982, 91 patients with urinary bladder carcinoma was visited our hospital for treatment. Clinicostatistical study was performed to clarify recent problems on urinary bladder carcinoma. In rural area more older peoples and more advanced cases, so more difficult to treat patients for the best.
This report presents five serial cases of female alcohol dependence treated at neuropsychiatric division of the Saku Central Hospital for the past two years, with special references on descriptive and clinical features. 1) In rural communities, alcohol dependence in women appears to be detected and treated in their earlier stage than men. This may be ascribable to a fewer number of female drinker and closer interpersonal relationship as compared with large cities. 2) All five cases in this clinical study were secondary alcoholism which had an affective disorder antedating the onset of alcoholism. Of them, three (64, 63 and 49 years of age) were with depression and two (35 and 33 years of age) were with psychoneurosis. 3) Suicide attempt was made by a 35-year-old woman, who had experienced loss of a close interpersonal relationship and had been conflicting with her husband. This may suggest that female alcoholics are more likely to commit suicide. 4) No significant relationship was found between drinking pattern and menstrual cycles in two cases with menstruation. 5) Although we have never experienced fetal alcohol syndrome up to present at our hospital, there are several foreign literatures on that subject. It must be required to let female alcoholics aware of this syndrome.