Clinical cases of poisoning (hazard) from agricultural chemicals frequency have been reported since 1967. The clinical cases of poisoning (hazard) decreased not always yearly. It seems that there were periods of organophosphorus (Parathion, EPN), of organic mercury and organochlorine (DDT, BHC, Endrin) in the poisoning (hazard) and environment pollution from agricultural chemicals. But, it is now a period of herbicide (Paraquat). 1) The clinical cases surveyed during this three years period totaled 326 cases, including 185 males and 141 females. 2) By age, the highest incidence was shared by people in their 50's. 3) By month, the incidence is the highest in July. 4) Nicotine sulfate and organophosphorus (Sumithion) shares the highest pacentage during pesticide spraying. But Paraquat (herbicide) shares the most highest percentage in suicides and attempted suicides. There were twenty-nine casces by paraquat among forty-one death cases during thrre years period. 5) According to the types of diseases, acute poisoning shared the highest portion with 58%, which is followed by dermatitis with 40%.
Of clinical cases of pesticide poisoning at rural hospitals across the country, it has been requested to provide reports on 31 cases the course of which had been of interest. By type of pesticide, the number of cases is 3 for fenitrothion, 1 for DDVP, 1 for vamidothion, 2 for malathion, 1 for trichlorfon, 1 for cyanophos, 1 for phenthoate, carbaryl, and edifenphos, 1 for leptophos, 1 for ortho-dichloro-benzene and dichlorvos, 1 for fenthion anal carbamates, 2 for methomyl, 2 for nicotine sulfate, I for calcium polysulfide, 1 for blasticidin S, 1 eye injury for paraquat and chloropicrin, and 11 for paraquat. One grave factor today is a sharp rise in the prevalence of poisoning with paraquat, which in most cases is used for suicide. Of late, there have also appeared cases in which death eventually results from the spraying of paraquat.
Organochlorine insecticides (BHC, DDT, etc) have been used in massive quatities in Japan. But in 1971, the goverment put a ban on their use as insecticides. We continued the residue analyses of organochlorine insecticide in human bodies from 1971 to 1982. This paper deals with the results of our residue analyses from 1980-1982. In paralel, We have also continued to analyze the residue of PCB. (1) A total of 264 specimens have been analyzed for human mother milk, the adipose tissue, the liver, the kidney and the spleen. (2) β-BHC and pp'-DDE were detected from all of these specimens. (3) Over a span 12 years, the decrease of total-DDT was smaller than that of β-BHC. (4) In the adipose tissue, there were no signs of a decrease in total DDT. (5) PCB was detected from all specimens of mother milk, the adipose tissue and the liver. It is conceivable that the pollution of human bodies by BHC, DDT. PCB, and other chemicals will last for a long time. There is a need to keep constant surveillance over the tendency of these chemicals in the environment and human bodies.
Two hundred and thirty adipose tissues were collected from inpatients, who had undergone an operation and an autopsy in the Saku Central Hospital from 1980 to 1982. Organochlorine pesticides were extracted from the adipose tissues and determined by gas-liquid chromatography with an electron-capture detector. The mean value was 1, 429 ppm for total BHC among males, and 1.665 ppm among females, 4.893 ppm and 3.791 ppm for total DDT, 1.082 ppm and 0.782 ppm for PCB, respectively. Regression analysis between the total BHC residue and the ages of patients indicated a positive correlation for both sexs. As for the relation between the rate of obesity and the residues, low rates of obesity (-10%--19%) were most significantly correlated with high values of total BHC, total DDT and PCB. We also discussed relations between cancerous diseases and the residues.
Environmental contamination caused by the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as BHC and DDT, as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is an important problem because of their accumulation in human bodies due to their high lipophilic properties and high chemical stability. In this study, we have investigated the actual condition of the BHC, DDT and PCB levels in the plasma of farmers in the three districts of Japan and in China. At the time of the blood sampling, about 10years had passed since the use of OCPs was forbidden in Japan, whereas OCPs were being used in China. The blood samples were collected from following 4 districts:(a) Northern Kyushu (N =67), (b) Tomishiro in Okinawa prefecture (N=24), (c) Yokote in Akita prefecture (N = 36) and (d) Harbin in China (N =21). The results are as follows: 1) β-BHC was detected in all of the 148 plasma samples with the range of 0.9-48.4 ppb. Percentage of the samples with the β-BHC level higher than 20 ppb was 2%(3 samples) for the Japanese and 57%(12 samples) for the Chinese. 2) p, p'-DDT and p, p'-DDE were detected in all samples and total-DDT was ranged from 2.4 to 49.9 ppb. Percentage of the samples with the total-DDT level higher than 20 ppb was 43%(9 samples) for the Chinese and 8%(10 samples) for the Japanese. DDT level of Chinese was significantly higher than those of farmers in Northern Kyushu and Yokote. 3) PCBs were detected in all of the Japanese samples (n=127) with the range of 1.1-22.8 ppb. Whereas the PCB level of 15 samples of Chinese women was less than 1.0 ppb and that of other 4 samples of Chinese men was higher than 10 ppb. From these results, regional difference in the residue of OCPs and PCBs in Japanese was discussed, besides the difference in that of OCPs beteween Japanese and Chinese was discussed in relation to the history of the use of OCPs.
Farmers are constantly exposed to the hazards of agrochemicals. Especially those who regularly spray their fields with pesticides are at high risk of being contracted with pesticideinduced maladies. During the three-year period from 1980 to 1982, health examinations were conducted, covering a total of 1, 164 pesticide sprayers in eight rural communities, Miye Prefecture. Of the number, 869 were women. Mercury residues in hair were also measured. The findings are as follows: 1. Abnormal lipid metabolism topped the list of disorders, followed by hypertension, ECG abnormalities, anemia, albuminuria and liver dysfunction in that order. 2. The rates of detection of these abnormalities were not particularly high as compared with those in ordinary health checkups. 3. When compared with previous findings, the cases of abnormal lipid metabolism and anemia decreased in number both in men and women, whereas the cases of abnormal cholinesterase activities and albuminuria increased in both sexes. 4. The majority of pesticides used by the farmers were organophosphorous. 5. The average level of mercury residues in hair was 5.35 ppm for men and 2.97 for women. 6. More than 6.0 ppm of mercury were detected in 23.1 % of the men and 1.9% of the women. None were found to carry more than 20 ppm of mercury in their hair.
It is a well-known fact that the environment has been globally contaminated with the persistent organochlorine insecticides and PCBs, and that all over the world the general populations have been polluted with them in spite of their minute quantity for some decades. These chemicals except PCBs are mainly neuropoison, and according to De Vlieger (1968), DDT and Dieldrin are translocated to human brain, and these concentrations of the tissue are greater than those of the blood. The adverse and ill effects of these residues on human central nervous system can be determined incompletely. In addition, their production and use have not yet been prohibited in some countries. Therefore, according to the previous report (1981), the contents of these compounds have been surveyed about wild yellowtails migrating around the Islands of Japan, and cultured ones fed on a sort of sardine catched near the Islands. In the case of DDT, the content of wild samples catched in 1983, showed not only low level of total DDT, but the increase of its metabolites, compared with those of two years before: i. e., the mean concentration decreased to about one-half (from 0.38 to 0.17 ppm), and the ratio of its meabolites per total DDT inversely increased from 41 to 57%. In addition, the same tendency was also observed in those of cultured samples. With regard to PCBs content, however, the fish of wild type showed the same level (0.10 ppm) as that of cultured type in 1983, and their peak patterns were observed similar. The PCBs contents have been almost unchanged in these two types since 1980 over a period of 3 years.
We investigated the content of NO3-N in the well water of the eastern, middle and nothern districts of Nagano Prefecture. The NO3-N content seasonally changes and takes on the pattern of a high in summer and a low in winter. Rain is considered to dilute the contaminated well water, but it lets NO3-N flow from the soil into the.well water, when the rain is poured by a typhoon. As a result, a high content of NO3-N is measured in the well water. The water sample of 25 out of 85 wells in Matsukawa Town exceeded the tolerance level of NO3-N (10 ppm, but 44.3 ppm in terms of NO3-). By crop area, the amount of NO3-N was highest in the fruitgrowing area, which was followed in order of the vegetable-growing area, the flower-growing and the rice planting area. We consider that the contamination of well water is caused both by chemical fertilizers and the less absorbility of the soil.
By use of 18 varieties of pesticide and six of their breakdown products, experiments were conducted to cause mutation and reversion in S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 within a range of 0.01ug-100 ug/plate. The results showed that Captan had mutagenic effects on TA98 and TA100. However, when S-9 mix was added, the number of revertant colonies ceased increasing. Ethylenthio urea caused mutations in TA98. When S-9 mix was added, revertant colonies increased about twice the number in the control. In the absense of S-9 mix, the result was the same.
A questionaire was sent to school nurses in rural districts of Shimane Prefecture asking them about the problems in the school health education and the school health guidance. The quantitative and qualitative improvement of the working conditions of school health nurses, and the effective co-operation between domestic education and school education based on the understanding of the changes of rural society is needed for the future development of health education. Above all the amplification of the “problem-oriented school health education” in each school is needed to establish a scientific point of view of school children.
Our examination was performed on 1, 541 men and 3, 803 women. Reviewed were blood pressure, obesity, anemia, fatty tissue (lipide), liver function, urine-suger and protein, urobilinogen, and their abnormalities. (1) High blood pressure was found in 53.7 % of the men and 68.3 % of the women, with higher rates found in the middle to older age groups of both men and women. (2) Obesity, by the Minowa method, was found to be over 20 %, with the higher rate being in women. The tendency to obesity in men was found to decrease with age. In females, abnormalities of blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, thickness of subcutaneous fatty tissue (of the upper arm and shoulder blade areas) were discovered to be greater in proportion to obesity. (3) Abnormalities in GPT were seen as 15.3 % in men and 7.3 % in women. According to age group in men: Those in their 30's, 21 %, in the 40's, 27.2 %, 50's, 12.7%, 60's, 9.1 %. A study on the effects of alcholic beverage consumption will be included in the 1983 survey.
Serum Ferritin was measured by a two-site immunoradiometric assay at the mass health examination in the I district of Shizuoka city. The persons investigated consisted of 197 women ranging in age from 26 to 79. The distribution of ferritin concentration in serum was lognormal distribution in 137 women who showed normal values in all other laboratory indexes of anemia. Their geometric means tended to increase with age, especialy in the group over 50. According to the limit of normal range which was set at 15.84ng/ml (Mean-1 Standard Deviation in 137 normally valued women), 59 women (29.9%) showed abnormal low value and this figure was the highest of any other anemic laboratry indexes. Among these 59 women, 20 women represented pre-latent iron defficiency. Serum ferritin showed more negative correlations with Total Iron Binding Capacity and Transferrin Saturation (which were used as screening indexes for iron deficiency) than Heamoglobin, Heamatocrit and Specific Gravities of Blood. Correlation coefficient between Serum Ferritin and Transferrin Saturation was-0.648 (p<0.001).