We have examined the influence labor causing upon health for inhabitants at Yuri district in Akita prefecture. Labor was defined in the light of the following factors ; style of agricultural management, field space, working days, working time a day, etc. Health was defined in the light of the following factors; red blood cell, hemoglobin, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, fast blood sugar, choline estelase, GPT, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase, obesity rate and blood pressure. 1) We discovered that in case of male workers the great amount of labor they engaged in, the higher level average index of HDL-ch and GPT reached. As the labor amount increases more numbers of patient appears with abnormality in choline estelase. We have not observed the similar tendency for female. 2) As the labor amount decrease (a) in case of male workers the average index gets higher in cholesterol, triglyceride, FBS and choline estelase, (b) in case of female workers the average index gets higher in triglyceride, FBS, choline estelase, uric acid and albumin. As the labor amount decreases (a) in case of male workers abnormality rate increases in choline estelase, triglyceride and HDL-ch, (b) in case of female Hb, HDL-ch, cholesterol and obesity. 3) For inhabitants over 70 years old male or female those living in plain and open field (Nishime town) are more active and show the lower percentage of getting ill than those in mountains (Higashiyuri town).
Over the three years from 1980 to 1982, investigations were carried out into the living and working conditions of fishermen and farmers aged 30 to 59 in a coastal region of Chiba prefecture. The major findings are as follows: (1) Man-years of work are less in the fishing communities than in the farming villages. Especially, women in the fishing communities work less. (2) As for food intake, Fishing people consume larger amounts of fish and shellfish (animal protein) than farmers, while farmers eat a good deal of vegetables and rice compared with fishermen. (3) Blood' tests revealed that hemoglobin, serum iron, total serum cholesterol, uric acid, GOT and GPT values are higher in fishermen than in farmers. HDL cholesterol levels were higher in the agrarian population. There was no great difference in serum protein, albumin, triglyceride, alkaliphosphatase, and cholinesterase levels. (4) The obesity rate is higher in the fishing villages than in the farming villages. Especially the obesity incidence is notably high among women in the fishing communities.
In the last 20 years since 1960, the population of Yachiho Village in Nagano Prefecture had decreased by 1, 089 (17.5%). In the same period, the share of people, 70 years old and over, had increased from 4.5% to 10.4 percent, suggesting that depopulation and aging are in progress. By type of farm management, farming families with sideline jobs share 87.4% of the population and there is a conspicuous increase in the number of farming families for which the non-agricultural income is greater than the agricultural income. Agricultural mechanization began to make rapid progress in or 1970: power cultivators are owned by all farming families and power sprayers and harvesters by about half of them. Due to the increase in income from non-agricultural work and the development of merchandise distribution systems, the intake of animal food, which used to be significantly small in the rural communities, has increased. In the last 20 years, the intake has increased by 6.3 times for meat, 1.4 times for fish and 4.7 times for eggs. A health care program for all residents of Yachiho Village has been instituted since 1954. The disease the prevalence of which was found to be highest in the past annual mass health screenings is hypertension. A check of the prevalence of stroke and myocardial infarction, which is an important parameter to assess effects from hypertension control, indicates that the prevalence of strokes was down 30.7% in 1971-82, the latter half of the control perind, from 1959-70, the former half. Howevre, there was a slight rise is the prevalence of myocardial infarction. The prevalence of strokes to myocardial infarction was 16: 1 in the former half and 9: 1 in the latter half, suggesting that prevalence of strokes was overwhelmingly high. There has been an increase in the number of healthy old people under the village's comprehensive health care program. They work till they reach a considerably high age and their health condition is good. Due to changes in the dietary pattern and a drop in the burdening of farm work, however, the obesity rate has increased among residents of Yachiho Village, and the cholesterol level, which used to be low, has risen. Particularly conspicuous are the rises in the numbers of obese persons and patients with cholesteremia among females in their 50s and 60s and among males in their 40s. In order to further decrease the prevalence of strokes and prevent an increase in that of myocardial infarction, there is a need for an elaborate guidance and control program by vocation, sex and age.
A questionnaire was conducted on the living and working conditions of inhabitants in the suburbs of a city in Hiroshima Prefecture. Respondents received medical and nutritional examinations. A summary of our findings is as follows: Those persons who are apparently overworking themselves eke out their energy deficiency by taking diets rich in carbohydrate complex. Their major health problems are hypertension, ischemic changes in ECG, anemia and lower cholinesterase activity. There were indications that agricultural chemicals have harmful effects on the health of the examinees. In contrast, many of those who work less consume large-even excessive-amounts of animal proteins and fats. Among them prevail liver failxure and metabolic disorders. In either group of the people examined, there was amundant evidence to show that they are at risk of developing arteriosclerosis. These findings should be taken into consideration when a health control program is implemnted.
A survey of physical mesurements, blood pressure, blood mesurements and frequency of food consumption was conducted on 152 males and 229 females, aged 40 to 65 years, from three rural districts in Saga prefecture. The districts were Ariake (flatland area), Kohhoku (intermediate area) and Yamanouchi (mountainous area). While, on the aged -above 70 years, a questionnaire on daily living and health condioion was investigated. The results were summarized as follows: 1) The values of skinfold thickness differed little among the districts. The rate of obesity by skinfold thickness both in male and female was lower than the result of National Dietary Survey in 1981. However, the average skinfold thickness in females were higher a little compared with the values of our suruey in same region in 1971. 2) The prevalence rate of anemia in females was remarkably high (below 12g/dl of hemoglobin, 34%). It presumed that agricultural work load might heavy, and nutrients intake correspond to the work load was insufficient. 3) From the results of frequency of food consumption, inhabitants in Ariake compared with Kohhoku more frequently intaked modern food e. g. meat, milk. On the other hand, Kohhoku was higher in blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio, and lower in triglyceride, total choresterol than Ariake. We guessed that the food consumption pattern mainly affect on the results of blood pressure and serum lipids. 4) In relation to the correlation matrix which calculated on all districts, the higher the obesity, the higher the blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol and cholinesterase activity, whereas the obesity decreased HDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio. 5) Among 90 persons aged above 70 years, the rate of ones who can not work from physically disability, and who have any desease was 18%, 51% respectively.
Mortarity due to pesticide poisoning for prefectures in Japan is examined according to the vital statistics in 1979-1981. The atlases of pesticide poisoning mortality for prefectures in Japan are presented. There is a wide range in mortality among prefectures and the highest mortality is 17.8 times as high as that observed in the prefecture which showed the lowest mortality. Regional characteristic is observed in the mortality. Northern part of Kanto Area and the southern part of Kyusyu Island show high mortality and low mortality is observed in Hokuriku Area. The ratio of the deaths due to pesticide poisoning to those due to automobile accident also show wide range among prefectures. The highest ratio is 38.3% and the lowest is 2.4%. The ratio shows similar regional characteristic to that observed in mortality.
Actual conditions of the health care of school personnel in rural districts of Shimane Prefecture were investigated, concentrating our attention on the structure of diseases, the contents of health examination, factors impeding health, and so forth. As a result of our investigation we found that the incidence of adult diseases among school personnel is considerably high. Health examinations with complete contents should be practised in the near future. Further, the establishment of health care system in the work place, the improvement of working conditions considering sufficiently the peculiarity of mental work and of femininity, the independence of school nurses as specialist should be realized on the basis of the understanding of actual problems, which are obtained by examinations of health care conditions at each work place including epidemiological examination.
For the past five years we have experienced six cases of remnant stomach cancer. All of the cases were successfully operated in our hospital, but in almost of them the preoperative conditions were not well and cancer had progressed considerably, so that their prognoses were not promising. The key for the cure of this malady lies in early detection and early treatment. Even those who have undergone partial gastrectomy should receive examinations for gastric cancer on a regular basis. But in our series only one patient (case 4) had received fluoroscopy since the first operation. The remaining five patients had no examination of the remnant stomach, nor gastric mass screening at all. Now case 4 was detected by mass screening, so we emphasize in this paper the necessity of gastric mass screening for those who had partial gastrectomy.
Seventy patients with liver cirrhosis hospitalized into our clinic were divided into a compensatory group and a decompensatory group according to three clinical findings, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy and bleeding from gastrointestinal tract. It was suggested that five items of biochemical data for liver function were very important on discriminating these two grops. The five items were cholinesterase, indocyanine green test, albumin, prothrombin time and hematocrit. We have tried to devise a new staging system for liver cirrhosis by scoring method using the five items. According to the total score calculated from scoring method, clinical stages were divided into four such as stage I, stage II, stage III, and stage IV. It was suggested that cases of stage III had to be treated very carefully. Liver and spleen volume of patients with liver cirrhosis were calculated by computed tomography. It was suggested that liver volume/spleen volume ratio was very important on discriminating these two groups.