Our country has many advances in the use of diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals; however, it should be said that the therapeutic nuclear medicine in both fields of research and clinical are still in developing stage compared to those seen in other countries. Now that alpha-emitters, conventionally regarded as an ‘dangerous stuff’, are being applied to the ‘targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT)’ worldwide. In Japan, a need of reviewing for radiation safety management is thus emerged to handle the alpha-emitters at a viewpoint of scientifically rational. This is a summary on such management applied in the University of Gothenburg in Sweden, where advanced practices of using alpha-emitters are being made for a long time in the therapeutic nuclear medicine. Although we have no intension of blindly accepting those management systems valid in other countries, it would be delightful if this report is referred to discuss and reinforce rational regulations in Japan.