Contamination of X-ray film is difficult to avoid when the bulk film processing is carried out by an automatic film processor. Developer in the processor frequently becomes discoloured due to oxidization of the primary developing chemical exacerbated by deletion of the sulfite caused by high temperature treatment. The developing rollers also become discoloured and contaminated while functioning in developer discoloured by oxidization. X-ray films become badly contaminated by the interaction of these two factors in the following manner, that is, oxides and silver chloride produced in developer adher to the film surface and dirt on the developing roller transfers to the film surface. We have developed a new developer resistent to discolouration through oxidation, and which also functions to maintain the clarity of radiographic image, and have made many test runs using in the automatic film processor and have had very satisfactory results.
1. Improvement in safety, fixation, and efficiency was obtained by the use of Magic Band, and guards attached on each side of the floating table to prevent babies from falling down, and attaching a protective shield for an assistant at an end of the table on taking X-ray films. On upright position, babies less than two years old are suspended in harnesses, while small children over 2 years old are made to straddle over a saddle ; an assistant is to handle them from behind the shield. Thus easy and perfect harnessing of head, trunk, and hip, as well as instant releasing of them are made possible. 2. We also contrived a new respiratory-phase-controlled release mechanism, consisting of a detector unit (a shatter coupled to a diaphragm and a photo-coupler), and a control unit capable of differentiating pulse width. This is not only free of mis-triggering due to temperature differentials, body movements, rapid and/or shallow respiration etc., but also even with such a shallow respiration as 10 ml exact synchronization is achieved. 3. We have made a new device to protect gonads of male and female babies at the time of femoral joint radiography. This consists of two parts, e.g. a fixed plate for protection of testicles and abdomen, and variable-width plates for that of the lesser pelvic cavity. The latter can be easily and automatically set by grasping pubic bones with knowbs protruding on the lower side of the plates and adjusting guages to inguinal lines of both sides. With this device exposures were reduced, measured with Mix-D Phantom, BeO, to 1/ 10-1/22 at ovaries and to 1/15 at testicles in anatomically normal location. This device is not only very practical, but also its reliability of protective effects on gonads in anatomically normal location were found to be 90%.
The method and effects for gonards protection were discussed on X-ray examination of hip joints in child. Considering to the results of this experiments, adequate gonards shield protectors were made in trial to decrease the gonards exposure dose for both boy and girl. 1) For female : The shape and size of the protector were considered after measuring the size of pelvic bone by X-ray film in newborn to 18 years old girl. Aluminium filter were placed around the protector in order to not only to decrease a exposure dose of an organ near gonards, but also could get a more wide field of X-ray film. 2) For male : The shield protector was made to cover scrotum including testicles to prevent from the X-ray scatter. Using these trial made shield protectors, its value and usefullness were studied by measuring a patient penetrating exposure dose of X-ray beam in various ways. Also, the effects of compensating filter which used as the same purpose was examined in the same way. Moreover, protector fixing device to the patient was considered in many ways.
Many methods for protection of gonads from unnecessary radiation exposure have been devised in the radiologic examination of infants' hip joint. We have devised a new protector of gonadal protection in radiography of infants' hip joints. The protector consisted of the base which was attached to the front of the multi-leaf collimator and the protective lead applicator and they were connected with pantograph-mechanism. Changing the distance between base and protective lead applicator, the gonadal protection's according to age and physique of patients were achieved appropriately. The shape and size of this protective lead applicator and its protective effect have been investigated.
It is necessary to get many good information from radiography of infant as same as an adult. Therefore we consider the following points in taking radiography of infant. Namely it is important to keep a patient in best position, and to expose in short time to catch at the inspiratory phase. Also it is desired to take radiogram of chest in upright position with an exposure time less than 10 millisecond, synchronously by using synchronous unit of respiramatic system and heart scope. Assistant to hold infant should use protecting apron containing 0.5mm thickness of lead from radiation.