A novel pulse sequence that enables simultaneous acquisition of T1-weighted (T1W) and T2-weighted (T2W) images is presented. In this new technique, the inversion recovery (IR) pulse of conventional fast inversion recovery (Fast IR) is replaced with a pulse train that consists of a fast spin echo (FSE) and 180 (y)+90 (x) for driven inversion (DI). By using a shorter TI and independent k-space ordering, the first part of the sequence provides T2W images and the second part provides T1W images, thereby enabling simultaneous acquisition in a single scan time comparable to that of Fast IR. Signal simulation also was conducted, and this was compared with conventional scanning techniques using normal volunteers. In the human studies, both T1W and T2W images showed the same image quality as conventional images, suggesting the potential for this technique to replace the combination of Fast IR and T2W FSE for scan-time reduction.
The purpose of this study was to decrease vascular artifacts caused by the in-flow effect in three-dimensional inversion recovery prepared fast spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (3D IR FSPGR) at 3.0 Tesla. We developed 3D triple IR (3IR) FSPGR and examined the signal characteristics of the new sequence. We have optimized scan parameters based on simulation, phantom, and in-vivo studies. As a result, optimized parameters (1st TI=600 ms, 3rd TI=500 ms) successfully have produced the vessel signal at more than 40% reduction, while gray-white matter contrast was preserved. Moreover, the reduced artifact was also confirmed by visual inspection of the in-vivo images for which this condition was used. Thus, 3D 3IR FSPGR was a useful sequence for the acquisition of T1-weighted images at 3.0 Tesla.
Although the cleanliness of the angiography room and that of the operating room have long been equally attended to, the concept of Standard Precautions (including the basic measures and procedures to prevent infection) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1996, as well as the introduction of transmission-based precautions, have been changing to preventive measures that are based on concrete measures. Therefore, a questionnaire was introduced in order to determine the actual status of countermeasures against infection used in the angiography room. The questionnaire was sent to 530 institutions, and 286 responded, a response rate of 54.0%. Its results significantly reveled the following: 1) unexpectedly low recognition of the need and importance for the CDC preventive measures against infection, 2) a considerable number of institutions continuing to perform the conventional preventive measures, 3) problems with education systems on preventive measures, and 4) handwashing, the most important measure against infection, failing to be adequately carried out noticeably among radiological technologists.
The management of apparatus for diagnostic imaging is an important job for radiological technologists. In the last 10 years we have encountered 2227 malfunctions in 3652 days. We detected 163 cases at the initial check-up, which accounted for 7.3% of total cases. By performing an initial check-up, we detected one malfunction every 21 days and were able to keep the effects of mishaps to a minimum, prevent accidents, and obtain stable-quality images.