Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) is an increasingly commonly adopted technique. As a result, however, total patient dose is increasing rapidly, especially when kV-cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is applied. This study investigated the dosimetry of kV-CBCT using a Farmer ionization chamber with a 60Co absorbed-dose calibration factor. The absorbed-dose measurements were performed using an I’mRT phantom (RW3, IBA) which is employed for dose verification of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The I’mRT phantom was used as a substitute for head and pelvis phantoms. The kV-CBCT absorbed dose was evaluated from a beam quality conversion factor of kV to 60Co and the ionization ratio of the I’mRT phantom and water, calculated using the Monte Carlo method. The dose distribution in the I’mRT phantom was also measured using a radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter (RGD). The absorbed doses for the pelvis phantom (full scan) ranged from 2.5–4 cGy for kV-CBCT and 4–8 cGy for MV-CBCT. TomoTherapy resulted in a lower dose of approximately 1.3 cGy due to fan-beam. For the head phantom (half scan), the doses ranged from 0.1–0.7 cGy for kV-CBCT and 3–5 cGy for MVCBCT. The results for RGD were similar to ion chamber measurements. It is necessary to decrease the absorbed dose of the organs at risk every time IGRT is applied.
At present, every manufacturer of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) equipment uses multi-leaf collimators (MLCs); however, each company’s intensity modulation methods and dose calculation algorithms differ. This study used four typical radiation treatment planning systems (RTPSs) employed domestically for prostate IMRT plans to carry out 15 case studies by one planner based on the dose limits at this clinic. The results were used to compare the differences, if any, in RTPS treatment plans. With prostate IMRT plans, an overlap area exists between the PTV and the rectum. For this reason, while observing dose limits of 60–75 Gy (within the dose tolerated by the rectum), securing uniformity and concentration of dose is essential to create the most appropriate treatment plan for the PTV and other targets. Although each RTPS uses different planning methods, it was generally possible to observe this clinic’s dose limits by adjusting the parameter values. When identical beam data is used, it is possible to create similar treatment plans.
This report was aimed at structuring the design of architectures and studying performance measurement of a parallel computing environment using a Monte Carlo simulation for particle therapy using a high performance computing (HPC) instance within a public cloud-computing infrastructure. Performance measurements showed an approximately 28 times faster speed than seen with single-thread architecture, combined with improved stability. A study of methods of optimizing the system operations also indicated lower cost.
In this article, we present a physical characterization of the agility™ (Elekta). agility™ is composed of 160 interdigitating multileaf collimators (MLCs) with a width of 5 mm at the isocenter. The physical characterizations that include leaf position accuracy, leakage, field penumbra and the tongue-and-groove (T&G) effect were evaluated using well-commissioned 4, 6 and 10-MV photon beams. The leaf position accuracy was within 0.5 mm for all gantry angles and each MLC. The leakage was 0.44% on average and reached 0.47% at 10 MV: remarkably low due to a new design with tilted leaves. However, the T&G effect occurred due to tilt. It was approximately 20.8% on average and reached 22.3% at 6 MV. The penumbra width increased up to 8.5 mm at a field size of 20×20 cm at 4 MV. High position designed MLCs create a wider penumbra but show lower leakage and large head clearance. Head clearance is an important factor in stereotactic radiotherapy with multiple non-coplanar beams.
Purpose: Advances in computed tomography (CT) technology make it possible to obtain left ventricular wall motion using 3D reconstruction. In this study, we compared the images obtained from CT and 201Tl electrocardiogram (ECG) gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods: In 20 patients with ischemic heart disease, we performed 201Tl ECG gated SPECT (GE Healthcare Millennium VG) and ECG gated CT (Philips Medical Systems Brilliance iCT) to evaluate of left ventricular wall motion during the resting phase. In SPECT, left ventricular images were reconstructed using quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) software. In CT, the images were reconstructed using Virtual Place (AZE Software). The left ventricle was classified into five regions (anterior, lateral, inferior, septal, and apical). The amplitude of the wall motion was classified into five grades according to AHA classification. The values of the wall motion were separately checked by two radiographers. Results: Assessment of left ventricular function myocardial wall movement using the three-dimensional movie display with ECG gated myocardial SPECT data was in agreement with the evaluation by cardiac CT inspection, and corresponded with wall motion in 88 of all 100 segments. Conclusions: SPECT analysis has the same quantity as that of obtained from CT for evaluation of left ventricular wall motion.
Purpose: In this report, we evaluated whether radiological technologists’ (RTs’) awareness of patient safety would improve and what kind of effects would be seen at the department of radiological technology by introducing KYT [K: kiken (hazard), Y: yochi (prediction), T: (training)]. Methods: KYT was carried out by ten RTs based on a KYT sheet for the department of radiological technology. To evaluate the effects of KYT, we asked nine questions each to ten participants before and after KYT enforcement with regard to their attitude to patient safety and to operating procedures for working safely. Results: Significant improvements after KYT enforcement were obtained in two items concerning medical safety: It is important for any risk to be considered by more than one person; The interest in preventive measures against medical accident degree conducted now) and one concerning operating procedures (It is necessary to have a nurse assist during testing with the mobile X-ray apparatus) (p<0.05). Conclusions: Performing KYT resulted in improved awareness of the importance of patient safety. KYT also enabled medical staffers to evaluate objectively whether the medical safety measures currently performed would be effective for patients.